Advertisement

Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 53–69 | Cite as

Cognitive–Behavior Therapy: Reflections on the Evolution of a Therapeutic Orientation

  • Marvin R. Goldfried
Article

Abstract

This article presents an account of the evolution of cognitive–behavior therapy over the past 35 years, which began with the introduction of cognition into behavior therapy in the mid-1960s. As cognitive–behavior therapists became more experienced clinically and recognized that clients did not always engage in clearly reportable internal dialogues, the schema construct was used to understand more about clients' implicit meaning structures. It is noted that self-schemas play a particularly important role in understanding how therapeutic change can be undermined, and clinical guidelines are offered to deal with this dilemma. The distinction between cognitive–behavior therapy and cognitive therapy is discussed, and the importance of activating emotional experiencing in the clinical change process is underscored.

behavior therapy cognitive therapy cognitive–behavior therapy schema emotion psychotherapy psychotherapy integration 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnkoff, D. B., & Glass, C. R. (1992). Cognitive therapy and psychotherapy. In D. K. Freedheim (Ed.), The history of psychotherapy (pp. 657–694). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  6. Bergin, A. E. (1970). Cognitive therapy and behavior therapy: Foci for a multidimensional approach to treatment. Behavior Therapy, 1, 205–212.Google Scholar
  7. Brady, J. P., Davison, G. C., Dewald, P. A., Egan, G., Fadiman, J., Frank, J. D., Gill, M. M., Hoffman, I., Kempler, W., Lazarus, A. A., Raimy, W., Rotter, J. B., & Strupp, H. H. (1980). Some views on effective principles of psychotherapy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4, 269–306.Google Scholar
  8. Breger, L., & McGaugh, J. L. (1965). Critique and reformulation of “learning-theory” approaches to psychotherapy and neurosis. Psychological Bulletin, 63, 338–358.Google Scholar
  9. Castonguay, L. G., Goldfried, M. R., & Hayes, A. M. (1996). Predicting the effect of cognitive therapy for depression: A study of unique and common factors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 497–504.Google Scholar
  10. Castonguay, L. G., Hayes, A. M., Goldfried, M. R., & DeRubeis, R. J. (1995). The focus of therapist interventions in cognitive therapy for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19, 485–503.Google Scholar
  11. Castonguay, L. G., Pincus, A. L., Agras, W. S., & Hines, C. E. (1998). The role of emotion in group cognitive–behavioral therapy for binge eating disorder: When things have to feel worse before they get better. Psychotherapy Research, 8, 225–238.Google Scholar
  12. Craighead, W. E. (1990). There's a place for us: All of us. Behavior Therapy, 21, 3–23.Google Scholar
  13. Elkin, I., Parloff, M. B., Hadley, S. W., & Autry, J. H. (1985). NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program: Background and research plan. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 305–316.Google Scholar
  14. Glass, C. R., & Arnkoff, D. B. (1992). Behavior therapy. In D. K. Freedheim (Ed.), The history of psychotherapy (pp. 587–628). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  15. Goldfried, M. R. (1995). Toward a common language for case formulation. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 5, 221–244.Google Scholar
  16. Goldfried, M. R., & Davison, G. C. (1976). Clinical Behavior Therapy. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  17. Goldfried, M. R., & Davison, G. C. (1994). Clinical Behavior Therapy (expanded). New York: Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
  18. Goldfried, M. R., & Robins, C. (1982). On the facilitation of self-efficacy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 361–379.Google Scholar
  19. Goldfried, M. R., & Robins, C. (1983). Self-schema, cognitive bias, and the processing of therapeutic experiences. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.), Advances in cognitive–behavioral research and therapy (Vol.II, pp.33–80). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  20. Goldsamt, L. A., Goldfried, M. R., Hayes, A. M., & Kerr, S. (1992). Beck, Meichenbaum, and Strupp: A comparison of three therapies on the dimension of therapist feedback. Psychotherapy, 29, 167–176.Google Scholar
  21. Greenberg, L. S. (2002). Integrating an emotion-focused approach to treatment into psychotherapy integration. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 12, 154–189.Google Scholar
  22. Greenberg, L. S., & Safran, J. D. (1987). Emotion in psychotherapy: Affect, cognition, and the process of change. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  23. Hayes, A. M., & Strauss, J. L. (1998). Dynamic systems theory as a paradigm for the study of change in psychotherapy: An application of cognitive therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 939–947.Google Scholar
  24. Hollon, S. D., & Beck, A. T., (1986). Cognitive and cognitive–behavioral therapies. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (3rd ed., pp. 443–482). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  25. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1973). On the psychology of prediction. Psychological Review, 80, 237–251.Google Scholar
  26. Landau, R. J., & Goldfried, M. R. (1981). The assessment of semantic structure: A unifying focus in cognitive, traditional, and behavioral assessment. In S. D. Hollon & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), Assessment strategies for cognitive–behavioral interventions. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  27. LeDoux, J. E. (1996). The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  28. Markus, H. (1977). Self-schemata and processing information about the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 63–78.Google Scholar
  29. McCullough, J. P., Jr. (2000). Treatment for chronic depression: Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  30. Mischel, W. (1968). Personality and assessment. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  31. Newman, M. G., Castonguay, L. G., & Molnar, C. (in press). Integrative therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. In R. G. Heimberg, C. L. Turk, & D. S. Mennin (Eds.), Generalized anxiety disorder: Advances in research and practice. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  32. Peterson, D. R. (1968). The clinical study of social behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  33. Raimy, V. (1975). Misunderstandings of the self. San Francisco: Jossy-Bass.Google Scholar
  34. Samoilov, A., & Goldfried, M. R. (2000). Role of emotion in cognitive–behavior therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7, 373–385.Google Scholar
  35. Teasdale, J. D., & Barnard, P. J. (1993). Affect, cognition, and change: Re-modeling depressive thought. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  36. Wilson, G. T. (1982). Psychotherapy process and procedure: The behavioral mandate. Behavior Therapy, 13, 291–312.Google Scholar
  37. Wiser, S., & Goldfried, M. R. (1993). Comparative study of emotional experiencing in psychodynamic–interpersonal and cognitive–behavioral therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 892–895.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marvin R. Goldfried
    • 1
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentState University of New YorkStony Brook

Personalised recommendations