Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 185–193 | Cite as

Negative Life Events and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence: Bonding and Cognitive Coping as Vulnerability Factors?

  • Vivian Kraaij
  • Nadia Garnefski
  • Erik Jan de Wilde
  • Arie Dijkstra
  • Winnie Gebhardt
  • Stan Maes
  • Laura ter Doest


The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of parental bonding and cognitive coping in the relationship between negative life events and depressive symptoms in adolescence. A sample of 1310 adolescents attending an intermediate vocational education school filled out a questionnaire. Adolescents with a poor parental bonding relationship seemed to be more vulnerable to depressive symptoms in the face of adverse life events than adolescents with more optimal bonding styles. Cognitive coping strategies seemed to play an even more important role. The use of self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing, positive refocusing, and positive reappraisal appeared to be related to depressive symptoms. In addition, self-blame, rumination, and positive reappraisal seemed to have a moderating role in the relationship between the amount of stress experienced and depressive symptoms. Developing prevention and intervention programs aimed at the formation of optimal bonding relationships and teaching adolescents adaptive cognitive coping strategies seems advisable.

negative life events depression adolescence bonding coping 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vivian Kraaij
    • 1
  • Nadia Garnefski
    • 1
  • Erik Jan de Wilde
    • 2
  • Arie Dijkstra
    • 3
  • Winnie Gebhardt
    • 1
  • Stan Maes
    • 4
  • Laura ter Doest
    • 5
  1. 1.Clinical and Health Psychology DepartmentLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Research DepartmentYouth Section of Municipal Health Service Rotterdam areaRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Clinical and Health Psychology DepartmentLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Clinical and Health Psychology DepartmentLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Clinical and Health Psychology DepartmentLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands

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