Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 508–515 | Cite as

Origins and Patterns of Spontaneous and Drug-Induced Canine Gastric Myoelectrical Dysrhythmia

  • L.W. Qian
  • Pankaj Jay Pasricha
  • J.D.Z. Chen


The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and orientation of gastric dysrhythmia using multichannel serosal recordings in dogs. Ten dogs chronically implanted with four to eight pairs of electrodes were studied. Gastric slow waves were recorded in four sessions: postsurgical and after atropine, vasopressin, and glucagon. A total of 554.7 min of bradygastria, 201 min of tachygastria and 22.3 min of arrhythmia were observed in the recordings. The majority of bradygastria (80.5 ± 9.4%) originated in the proximal stomach (P < 0.04, vs other locations) and propagated all the way to the distal antrum. In contrast, tachygastria mainly originated in the distal antrum (80.6 ± 8.8%) (P < 0.04, vs other locations) and propagated partially or all the way to the proximal stomach. Dysrhythmia appeared intermittently with normal gastric slow waves. In all recordings, normal slow waves were present 38.0 ± 5.3% of the time, while bradygastria, tachygastria, and arrhythmia were present 35.9 ± 5.3%, 23.0 ± 1.6%, and 2.4 ± 0.5% of the time, respectively. The prevalence of dysrhythmia was highest in the distal antrum (80.4%) (P < 0.01) and lowest in the proximal part of the stomach. In conclusion, tachygastria originates from an ectopic pacemaker in the distal antrum. It may completely or partially override the normal slow waves. Bradygastria is attributed to a decrease in the frequency of the normal pacemaker in the corpus. The prevalence of gastric dysrhythmia is different in different locations of the stomach and is highest in the distal antrum.

gastric myoelectrical activity gastric dysrhythmia electromyogram electrogastrography gastric motility 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Code CF, Marlett JA: Canine tachygastria. Mayo Clin Proc 49:325-332, 1974Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Telander RL, Morgan KG, Kreulen DL, Schmalz PF, Kelly KA, Szurszewsky JH: Human gastric atony with tachygastria and gastric retention. Gastroenterology 75:497-501, 1978Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen JDZ, Pan J, McCallum RW: Clinical significance of gastric myoelectric dysrhythmia. Dig Dis 13:275-290, 1995Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    David HB, Chen JDZ, Lin ZY, Tribble CG, McCallum RW: Median acute ligament syndrome: a possible cause of idiopathic gastroparesis. Am J Gastroenterol 92:519-523, 1997Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Debinski HS, Ahmed S, Milla PJ, Kamm MA: Electrogastrography in chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Dig Dis Sci 41:1292-1297, 1996Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jebbink HJ, Samsom M, Bruijs PP, Bravenboer B, Akkermans LM, VanBerge-Henegouwen GP, Smout AJ: Hyperglycemia induces abnormalities of gastric myoelectrical activity in patients with type I diabetic mellitus. Gastroenterology 107:1390-1397, 1994Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pfaffenbach B, Adamek RJ, Bartholomaus C, Wegener M: Gastric dysrhythmia and delayed gastric emptying in patients with functional dyspepsia. Dig Dis Sci 42:2094-2099, 1997Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sims MA, Hasler WL, Chey WD, Kim MS, Owyang C: Hyperglycemia inhibits mechanoreceptor-mediated gastrocolonic responses and colonic peristaltic reflexes in healthy humans. Gastroenterology 108:350-359, 1995Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    You CH, Chey WY, Lee KY, Menguy R, Bortoff A: Gastric and small intestinal myoelectric dysrhythmia associated with chronic intractable nausea and vomiting. Ann Intern Med 95:449-451, 1981Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    You CH, Lee KY, Chey WY, Menguy R: Electrogastrographic study of patients with unexplained nausea, bloating, and vomiting. Gastroenterology 79:311-314, 1980Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen JDZ, Lin ZY, McCallum RW: Abnormal gastric myoelectrical activity and delayed gastric emptying in patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis. Dig Dis Sci 41(8):1538-1545, 1996Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen J, McCallum RW: Gastric slow wave abnormalities in patients with gastroparesis. Am J Gastroenterol 87:477-482, 1992Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liang J, Co E, Zhang M, Pineda J, Chen JDZ: Development of gastric slow waves in preterm infants measured by electrogastrography. Am J Physiol (Gastrointest Liver Physiol), 37:G503-G508, 1998Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hu S, Stern RM: Optokinetic nystagmus correlates with severity of vection-induced motion sickness and gastric tachygarrhythmia. Aviat Space Environ Med 69:1162-1165, 1998Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hu S, Stern RM, Vasey MW, Koch KL: Motion sickness and gastric myoelectrical activity as a function of speed of rotation of a circular vection drum. Aviat Space Environ Med 60:411-414, 1989Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koch KL, Stern RM, Vasey M, Botti JJ, Creasy GW, Dwyer A: Gastric dysrhythmia and nausea of pregnancy. Dig Dis Sci 35:961-968, 1990Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abell TL, Malagelada J-R: Glucagon evoked gastric dysrhythmia in human shown by an improved electrogastrographic technique. Gastroenterology 88:1932-1940, 1985Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Daniel EE: The electrical and contractile activity of the pylorus region in dogs and the effects of drugs. Gastroenterology 37:268-281, 1965Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hasler W, Owyang C: Peptide-induced gastric arrhythmia: a new cause of gastroparesis. Regul Pept Lett 2:6-12, 1990Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kim CH, Azpiroz F, Malagelada JR: Characteristic of spontaneous and drug-induced gastric dysrhythmia in chronic canine model. Gastroenterology 90:421-427, 1986Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kim CH, Hanson RB, Abell TL, Camilleri M, Malagelada JR. Effects of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis on epinephrine induced gastroduodenal electromechanical changes in humans. Mayo Clin Proc 64:149-157, 1989Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kim MS, Chey WD, Owyang C, Hasler WL: Role of plasma vasopressin as a mediator of nausea and gastric slow wave dysrhythmias in motion sickness. Am J Physiol 272:G853-G862, 1997Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shonnard P, Ary T, Sanders KM: Influence of prostaglandins on electrical and mechanical activities of gastric muscles of Bufo marinus. Comp Biochem Physiol C 90:325-335, 1988Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Qian LW, Lin XM, Chen JDZ: Normalization of atropine-induced postprandial dysrhythmias with gastric pacing. Am J Physio. 276:G387-G392, 1999Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kelly KA, Code CF: Effect of transthoracic vagotomy on canine gastric electrical activity. Gastroenterology 57:51-58, 1969Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hotokezaka M, Mentis EP, Patel SP, Combs MJ, Teates CD, Schirmer BD: Recovery of gastrointestinal tract motility and myoelectric activity change after abdominal surgery. Arch Surg 132:410-417, 1997Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stoddard CJ, Waterfall WE, Brown BH, Duthie HL: The effects of varying the extent of the vagotomy on the myoelectrical and motor activity of the stomach. Gut 14:657-664, 1973Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Abell TL, Camilleri M, Hench V, Malagelada J-R: Gastric electromechanical function and gastric emptying in diabetic gastroparesis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepotol 3:163-167, 1991Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chen JDZ: A computerized data analysis system for electrogastrogram. Comp Biomed Eng 40:128-135, 1993Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stoddard CJ, Smallwood RH, Duthie HL: Electrical arrhythmia's in the human stomach. Gut 22:705-712, 1981Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brzana RJ, Koch KL, Bingaman S: Gastric myoelectrical activity in patients with gastric outlet obstruction and idiopathic gastroparesis. Am J Gastroenterol 93:1803-1809, 1998Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lin XM, Levanon D, Chen JDZ: Impaired postprandial gastric slow waves in patients with functional dyspepsia. Dig Dis Sci 43:1678-1684, 1998Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen JDZ, Ke MY, Lin XM, Wang Z, Zhang M: Cisapride provides symptomatic relief in functional dyspepsia associated with gastric myoelectrical abnormalities. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 14:1041-1047, 2000Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sanders KM: A case for interstitial cells of Cajal as pacemakers and mediators of neurotransmission in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenterology 111:492-515, 1996Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • L.W. Qian
  • Pankaj Jay Pasricha
  • J.D.Z. Chen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations