Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 249, Issue 1, pp 167–175 | Cite as

Trends in phytoremediation of radionuclides

  • Slavik Dushenkov
Article

Abstract

Phytoremediation, a novel plant-based remediation technology, is applied to a variety of radionuclide-contaminated sites all over the world. Phytoremediation is defined as the use of green plants to remove pollutants from the environment or to render them harmless. Current status of several subsets of phytoremediation of radionuclides is discussed: (a) phytoextraction, in which high biomass radionuclide-accumulating plants and appropriate soil amendments are used to transport and concentrate radionuclides from the soil into the above-ground shoots, which are harvested with conventional agricultural methods, (b) rhizofiltration, in which plant roots are used to precipitate and concentrate radionuclides from polluted effluents, (c) phytovolatilization, in which plants extract volatile radionuclides from soil and volatilize them from the foliage and (d) phytostabilization, in which plants stabilize radionuclides in soils, thus rendering them harmless. It is shown that phytoremediation is a fast developing field and the phytoremediation of radionuclides might soon become an integral part of the environment management and risk reduction process.

phytoremediation radiocesium radionuclides radiostrontium rhizofiltration uranium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adriano DC, Wallace A and Romney EM 1980 Uptake of transuranic nuclides from soil by plants grown under controled environmental conditions. In Transuranic Elements in the Environment. Ed. W. Hanson. pp. 336–360. Technical Information Center, USDOE.Google Scholar
  2. Akber RA, Johnston A and Hancock G 1992 Absorption of radionuclides and other solutes in a natural wetland system. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 45(1– 4), 293–297.Google Scholar
  3. Berti WR and Cunningham SD 2000 Phytostabilization of metals. In Phytoremediation of Toxic Metals: Using Plants to Clean Up the Environment. Ed. I Raskin. pp. 71–88. Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, NY.Google Scholar
  4. Bunzl K, Albers BP, Shimmack W, Rissanen K, Suomela M, Puhakainen M, Rahola T and Steinnes E 1999 Soil to plant uptake of fallout 137 Cs by plants from boreal areas polluted by industrial emissions from smelters. Sci. Total Environm 234, 213–221.Google Scholar
  5. Cline JF and Rickard WH 1972 Radioactive strontium and cesium in cultivated and abandoned field plots. Health Phys. 23, 317–324.Google Scholar
  6. Clint GMand Dighton J 1992 Uptake and accumulation of radiocaesium by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal heather plants. New Phytol. 121, 555–561.Google Scholar
  7. Cowart JB and Burnett WC 1994 The distribution of uranium and thorium decay-series radionuclides in the environment — a review. J. Environ. Qual. 23, 651–662.Google Scholar
  8. Delvaux B, Kruyts N and Cremers A 2000 Rhizospheric mobilization of radiocesium in soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 1489–1493.Google Scholar
  9. Dushenkov V, Kumar NPBA, Motto H and Raskin I 1995 Rhizofiltration: the use of plants to remove heavy metals from aqueous streams. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29, 1239–1245.Google Scholar
  10. Dushenkov S, Mikheev A., Prokhnevsky A, Ruchko M and Sorochinsky B 1999 Phytoremediation of radiocesium-contaminated soil in the vicinity of Chernobyl, Ukraine. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33, 469–475.Google Scholar
  11. Dushenkov S, Vasudev D, Kapulnik Y, Gleba D, Fleisher D, Ting KC and Ensley B 1997b Removal of uranium from water using terrestrial plants. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31, 3468–3474.Google Scholar
  12. Dushenkov S, Kapulnik Y, Blaylock M, Sorochinsky B, Raskin I and Ensley B 1997a Phytoremediation: a novel approach to an old problem. In Global Environmental Biotechnology. Ed. DL Wise. pp. 563–572. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  13. Ebbs SD, Brady DJ and Kochian LV 1998 Role of uranium speciation in the uptake and translocation of uranium by plants. J. Exp. Bot. 49, 1183–1190.Google Scholar
  14. Echevarria G, Vong PC and Morel JL 1997 Bioavailability of Technetium-99 as affected by plant species and growth, application form, and soil incubation. J. Environ. Qual. 26, 947–956.Google Scholar
  15. Echevarria G, Sheppard NI and Morel J 2001 Effect of pH on sorption of uranium in soils. J. Environ. Radioact. 53, 257–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Elless MP, Armstrong AQ and SY Lee 1997 Characterization and solubility measurements of uranium-contaminated soils to support risk assessment. Health Phys. 72, 716–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Entry JA, Watrud LS, Manasse RS and Vance NC 1997 Phytoremediation and reclamation of soils contaminated with radionuclides. In Phytoremediation of Soil and Water Contaminants. Eds. EL Kruger, Anderson TA and Coats JR. pp. 299–306. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  18. Entry JA, Watrud LS and Reeves M 1999 Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr from contaminated soil by three grass species inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi. Environ. Pollut. 104, 449–457.Google Scholar
  19. Fesenko SV, Spiridonov SI, Sanzharova NI and Alexakhin RM 1997 Dynamics of 137Cs bioavailability in soil-plant system in areas of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident zone with a different physico-chemical composition of radioactive fallout. J. Environ. Radioact. 34, 287–313.Google Scholar
  20. Fulbright, H. H., A. L. Schwirian-Spann, K. M. Jerome, B. B. Looney and V. V. Brunt 1996. Status and practicality of detritiation and tritium reduction strategies for environmental remediation. Aiken, SC, Westinghouse Savannah River Company: 1–10.Google Scholar
  21. Gambrell RP 1994 Trace and toxic metals in wetlands-a review. J. Environ. Qual. 23, 883–891.Google Scholar
  22. Garten CT and Tucker CS 1986 Plant Uptake of Neptunium. J. Environ. Radioact. 4, 91–99.Google Scholar
  23. Garten CT and Lomax RD 1989 Technetium-99 cycle in maple trees: characterization of changes in chemical form. Health Phys. 57, 299–307.Google Scholar
  24. Garten CT, Tucker CS and Walton BT 1986 Environmental fate and distribution of technetium-99 in a deciduous forest ecosystem. J. Environ. Radioact. 3, 163–188.Google Scholar
  25. Grodzinsky DM, Kolomiets KD, Kutlakhmedov YA, Bulah AA, Dmitriev AP, Homlyak MN, Bubryak II, Zezina NB, Mikheev AN and Kravets AP 1991 Antropogenouse Radionuclide Anomaly and Plants. Lybid', Kiev. 158 pp. (in Russian).Google Scholar
  26. Grodzinsky D, Dushenkov S, Mikheev A, Prokhnevsky A, Ruchko M and Sorochinsky B 1997 Modification of the soil cesium-137 availability to plants. Dokl. Nac. Akad. Nauk Ukraini 10, 179–182.Google Scholar
  27. Guibal E, Roulph C and Cloirec PL 1992 Uranium biosorption by a filamentous fungus mucor miehei pH effect on mechanisms and performance of uptake. Wat. Res. 26, 1139–1145.Google Scholar
  28. Hoffman FO, Garten CT, Huckabee JW and Lucas DM 1982 Interception and retention of Technetium by vegetation and soil. J. Environ. Qual. 11, 133–141.Google Scholar
  29. Huang JW, Blaylock MJ, Kapulnik Y and Ensley BD 1998 Phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils: role of organic acids in triggering uranium hyperaccumulation in plants. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32, 2004– 2008.Google Scholar
  30. Kabata-Pendias, A. and H. Pendias 1996 Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 365 pp.Google Scholar
  31. Krouglov SV, Filipas AS, Alexakhin RM and Arkhipov NP 1997 Long-term study on the transfere of 137Cs and 90Sr from Chernobyl-contaminated soils to grain crops. J. Envoron. Radioact. 34, 267–286.Google Scholar
  32. Kutlakhmedov YA, Polikarpov GG, Zotov VP, Zezina NV and Mikheev AN 1998 Medico-biological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident. Medecol, Kyev. 172 pp.Google Scholar
  33. Langmuir D 1978 Uranium solution-mineral equilibra at low temperatures with applications to sedimentary ore deposits. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 42, 547–569.Google Scholar
  34. Lasat MM, Norvell WA and Kochian LV 1997 Potential for phytoextraction of 137Cs from contaminated soil. Plant Soil 195, 99–106.Google Scholar
  35. Lasat MM, Fuhrmann M, Ebbs SD, Cornish JE and Kochian LV 1998 Phytoremediation of a radiocesium-contaminated soil: evaluation of cesium-137 bioaccumulation in the shoots of three plant species. J. Environ. Qual. 27, 165–169.Google Scholar
  36. Mortvedt JJ 1994 Plant and soil relationships of uranium and thorium decay series radionuclides — a review. J. Environ. Qual. 23, 643–650.Google Scholar
  37. Murphy CEJ 2001. An estimate of the history of tritium inventory in wood following irrigation with tritiated water. Aiken, SC, Westinghouse Savannah River Company: 1–10.Google Scholar
  38. Negri CM and Hinchman RR 2000. The use of plants for the treatment of radionuclides. In Phytoremediation of Toxic Metals: Using Plants to Clean Up the Environment. Ed. I. Raskin. pp. 107–132. Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, NY.Google Scholar
  39. Negri MC, Hinchman RR and Wozniak JB 2000. Capturing a mixed contaminant plume: tritium phytoevaporation at Argonne National Laboratory's area 319. Argonne, IL, Argonne National Laboratory: 1–7.Google Scholar
  40. Nisbet AF and Shaw S 1994 Summary of a five-year lysimeter study on the time dependent transfer of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239– 240Pu, and 241Am to crops from three contrasting soil types, 2: distribution between different plant parts. J. Environ. Radioact. 23, 171–187.Google Scholar
  41. Rigol, A., M. Roig, M. Vidal and G. Rauret 1999 Sequential extractions for the study of radiocesium and radiostrontium dynamics in mineral and organic soils fromWestern Europe and Chernobyl areas. Environ. Sci. Technol. 33, 887–895.Google Scholar
  42. Roca MC, Vallejo VR, Roig M, Tent J, Vidal M and Rauret G 1997 Prediction of cesium-134 and strontium-85 crop uptake based on soil properties. J. Environ. Qual. 26, 1354–1362.Google Scholar
  43. Salt DE, Pickering IJ, Prince RC, Gleba D, Dushenkov S, Smith RD and Raskin I 1997 Metal accumulation by aquacultured seedlings of Indian mustard. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31, 1636–1644.Google Scholar
  44. Sanzharova NI, Fesenko SF, Lisyanskii KB, Kuznetsov VK, Abramova TN and Kotik VA 1997 Forms and accumulation dynamics of 137Cs in crops after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Pochvodenie 2, 159–164 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  45. Schreckhise RG and Cline JF 1980 Comparative uptake and distribution of plutonium, americium, curium, and neptunium in four plant spaecies. In Transuranic Elements in the Environment. Ed. W. Hanson. pp. 361–370. Technical Information Center, USDOE.Google Scholar
  46. Seel JF, Whicker FW and Adriano DC 1995 Uptake of 137Cs in vegetable crop grown on a contaminated lakebed. Health Phys. 68, 793–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Sheppard SC, Evenden WG and Pollock RJ 1989 Uptake of natural radionuclides by field and garden crops. Can. J. Soil Sci. 69, 751– 767.Google Scholar
  48. Sorochinsky BV, Mikheev AN, Kuchko MV and Prokhrevsky AT 1998. Decontamination of small water reservoirs of the 10-km zone of chernobyl npp by rhizofiltration. In Problems of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. pp. 97–102. Naukova Dumka. Kiev.Google Scholar
  49. Timofeeva-Ressovskaia, E. A. 1963 Isotope distribution in major components of fresh water systems. Proc. Inst. Biol. 30, 3–72.Google Scholar
  50. Timofeeva-Ressovskaia EA, Agafonov BM and Timofeev-Ressovsky NV 1962 On radioisotopes fate in water bodies. Proc. Inst. Biol. 22, 49–67.Google Scholar
  51. Vandecastelle J, Garten CT, Bruwaene RV, Janssens J, Kirchmann R and Myttenaere C 1986. Chemical Speciation of technetium in soil and plants: impact on soil-plant-animal-transfer. In Speciation of Fission and Activation Products in the Environment. Eds. RA Bulman and Cooper JR. pp. 368–381. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  52. Veresoglou DS, Barbayiannis N and Matsi T 1996 Shoot Sr concentrations in relation to shoot Ca concentrations and to soil properties. Plant Soil 1978, 95–100.Google Scholar
  53. Zhu YG and Shaw G 2000 Soil contamination with radionuclides and potential remediation. Chemosphere 41, 121–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biotechnology Center for Agriculture and the Environment, RutgersThe State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations