Research in Science Education

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 567–589 | Cite as

An Investigation of Software Scaffolds Supporting Modeling Practices

  • Eric B. Fretz
  • Hsin-Kai Wu
  • BaoHui Zhang
  • Elizabeth A. Davis
  • Joseph S. Krajcik
  • Elliot Soloway


Modeling of complex systems and phenomena is of value in science learning and is increasingly emphasised as an important component of science teaching and learning. Modeling engages learners in desired pedagogical activities. These activities include practices such as planning, building, testing, analysing, and critiquing. Designing realistic models is a difficult task. Computer environments allow the creation of dynamic and even more complex models. One way of bringing the design of models within reach is through the use of scaffolds. Scaffolds are intentional assistance provided to learners from a variety of sources, allowing them to complete tasks that would otherwise be out of reach. Currently, our understanding of how scaffolds in software tools assist learners is incomplete. In this paper the scaffolds designed into a dynamic modeling software tool called Model-It are assessed in terms of their ability to support learners' use of modeling practices. Four pairs of middle school students were video-taped as they used the modeling software for three hours, spread over a two week time frame. Detailed analysis of coded videotape transcripts provided evidence of the importance of scaffolds in supporting the use of modeling practices. Learners used a variety of modeling practices, the majority of which occurred in conjunction with scaffolds. The use of three tool scaffolds was assessed as directly as possible, and these scaffolds were seen to support a variety of modeling practices. An argument is made for the continued empirical validation of types and instances of tool scaffolds, and further investigation of the important role of teacher and peer scaffolding in the use of scaffolded tools.

scaffolding scaffolds modeling practices modeling software 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric B. Fretz
    • 1
  • Hsin-Kai Wu
    • 1
  • BaoHui Zhang
    • 1
  • Elizabeth A. Davis
    • 1
  • Joseph S. Krajcik
    • 1
  • Elliot Soloway
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MichiganUSA

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