Plant and Soil

, Volume 248, Issue 1–2, pp 257–268

Interaction of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition in determining growth

  • Corine C. de Groot
  • Leo F. M. Marcelis
  • Riki van den Boogaard
  • Werner M. Kaiser
  • Hans Lambers
Article

Abstract

In this paper we discuss the differences and similarities in the growth response of tomato plants to N and P limitation, and to their interaction. Two detailed growth experiments, with varied N or P supply, were conducted in order to unravel the effects of N and P limitation on growth of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Relative growth rate (RGR) initially increased sharply with increasing plant P concentration but leveled off at higher plant P concentrations. In contrast, RGR increased gradually with increasing plant N concentration before it leveled off at higher plant N concentrations. The relationship of RGR with organic leaf N and P showed the same shape as with total N and P concentrations, respectively. The difference in response is most likely due to the different roles of N and P in the machinery of the plant's energy metabolism (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration). Plant N concentration decreased with increasing P limitation. We show that this decrease cannot be explained by a shift in dry-mass partitioning. Our results suggest that the decrease in N concentration with increasing P limitation may be mediated by a decrease in leaf cytokinin levels and is less likely due to decreased energy availability at low P conditions. Dry-mass partitioning to the roots was closely linearly related to the leaf reduced-N concentration. However, treatments that were severely P limited deviated from this relationship.

cytokinins dry-mass partitioning Lycopersicon esculentum nitrogen–phosphorus interaction relative growth rate tomato 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrews M, Sprent J I, Raven J A and Eady P E 1999 Relationships between shoot to root ratio, growth and leaf soluble protein concentration of Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Triticum aestivum under different nutrient deficiencies. Plant Cell Environ. 22, 949–958.Google Scholar
  2. Bouma T J, De Visser R, Van Leeuwen P H, De Kock M J and Lambers H 1995 The respiratory energy requirements involved in nocturnal carbohydrate export from starch-storing mature source leaves and their contribution to leaf dark respiration. J. Exp. Bot. 46, 1185–1194.Google Scholar
  3. Bueno M S, Alonso A and Villalobos N 1994 Nitrate reduction in cotyledons of Cicer arietinum L.: regulatory role of cytokinins. Plant Sci. 95, 117–124.Google Scholar
  4. Burns I G, Walker R L and Moorby J 1997 How do nutrients drive growth? In Plant Nutrition – For Sustainable Food Production and Environment. Eds. T Ando et al. pp. 891–895. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  5. Buwalda F and Warmenhoven M 1999 Growth-limiting phosphate nutrition suppresses nitrate accumulation in greenhouse lettuce. J. Exp. Bot. 50, 813–821.Google Scholar
  6. Cárdenas-Navarro R, Adamowicz S and Robin P 1998 Diurnal nitrate uptake in young tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants: test of a feedback-based model. J. Exp. Bot. 49, 721–730.Google Scholar
  7. De Groot C C, Marcelis L F M, Van den Boogaard R and Lambers H 2001a Growth and dry-mass partitioning in tomato as affected by phosphorus nutrition and light. Plant Cell Environ. 24, 1309–1317.Google Scholar
  8. De Groot C C, Marcelis L F M, Van den Boogaard R and Lambers H 2001b Regulation of growth by phosphorus supply in whole tomato plants. In Plant Nutrition – Food Security and Sustainability of Agro-ecosystems. Proceedings of XIV International Plant Nutrition Colloquium, Hannover, Germany. Eds.WJ Horst et al. pp. 114–115. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  9. De Pinheiro Henriques A R and Marcelis L F M 2000 Regulation of growth at steady-state nitrogen nutrition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.): interactive effects of nitrogen and irradiance. Ann. Bot. 86, 1073–1080.Google Scholar
  10. Dhillon S S 1978 Influence of varied phosphorus supply on growth and xylem sap cytokinin level of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) seedlings. Plant Phys. 61, 521–524.Google Scholar
  11. Gaudinová A 1990 The effect of cytokinins on nitrate reductase activity. Biol. Plant. 32, 89–96.Google Scholar
  12. Gniazdowska A and Rychter A M 1999 Low phosphate nutrition alters bean plants' ability to assimilate and translocate nitrate. J. Plant Nutr. 22, 551–563.Google Scholar
  13. Gniazdowska A and Rychter A M 2000 Nitrate uptake by bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots under phosphate deficiency. Plant Soil 226, 79–85.Google Scholar
  14. Ho L C and Thornley J H M 1978 Energy requirements for assimilate translocation from mature tomato leaves. Ann. Bot. 42, 481–483.Google Scholar
  15. Horgan J M and Wareing P F 1980 Cytokinins and the growth response of seedlings of Betula pendula Roth. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency. J. Exp. Bot. 31, 525–532.Google Scholar
  16. Humphries E C 1956 Mineral components and ash analysis. In Modern Methods of Plant Analysis, Volume 1. Eds. K Paech and M V Tracey. pp. 468–502. Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  17. Jacob J and Lawlor D W 1991 Dependence of photosynthesis of sunflower and maize leaves on phosphate supply, ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate pool size. Plant Physiol. 98, 801–807.Google Scholar
  18. Jeschke W D, Peuke A D, Kirkby E A, Pate J S and Hartung W 1996 Effects of P deficiency on the uptake, flows and utilization of C, N and H2O within intact plants of Ricinus communis L. J. Exp. Bot. 47, 1737–1754.Google Scholar
  19. JeschkeWD, Kirkby E A, Peuke A D, Pate J S and HartungW 1997 Effects of P deficiency on assimilation and transport of nitrate and phosphate in intact plants of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.). J. Exp. Bot. 48, 75–91.Google Scholar
  20. Klämbt D 1977 Cytokinin and cell metabolism. In Plant Growth Regulation, proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Plant Growth Substances, Lausanne. Ed. P E Pilet. pp. 154–160. Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  21. Kuiper D, Schuit J and Kuiper P J C 1988 Effects of internal and external cytokinin concentrations on root growth and shoot to root ratio of Plantago major ssp pleiosperma at different nutrient conditions. Plant Soil 111, 231–236.Google Scholar
  22. Le Bot J and Kirkby E A 1992 Diurnal uptake of nitrate and potassium during the vegetative growth of tomato plants. J. Plant Nutr. 15, 247–264.Google Scholar
  23. Lu J L, Ertl J R and Chen C 1992 Transcriptional regulation of nitrate reductase mRNA levels by cytokinin-abscisic acid interaction in etiolated barley leaves. Plant Physiol. 98, 1255–1260.Google Scholar
  24. Marschner H 1995 Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  25. Martin A C, del Pozo J C, Iglesias J, Rubio V, Solano R, de la Peña A, Leyva A and Paz-Ares J 2000 Influence of cytokinins on the expression of phosphate starvation responsive genes in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 24, 559–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Menary R C and Van Staden J 1976 Effect of phosphorus nutrition and cytokinins on flowering in the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 3, 201–205.Google Scholar
  27. Mengel K and Kirkby E A 1987 Principles of plant nutrition. International Potash Institute Worblaufen, Bern.Google Scholar
  28. Rayle L, Ross C W and Robinson N 1982 Estimation of osmotic parameters accompanying zeatin-induced growth of detached cucumber cotyledons. Plant Physiol. 70, 1634–1636.Google Scholar
  29. Rufty TW Jr, MacKown C T and Israel DW 1990 Phosphorus stress effects on assimilation of nitrate. Plant Physiol. 94, 328–333.Google Scholar
  30. Rufty T W Jr, Israel D W, Volk R J, Qiu J and Sa T 1993 Phosphate regulation of nitrate assimilation in soybean. J. Exp. Bot. 44, 879–891.Google Scholar
  31. Salama A M S El-D A and Wareing P F 1979 Effects of mineral nutrition on endogenous cytokinins in plants of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). J. Exp. Bot. 30, 971–981.Google Scholar
  32. Scheible W-R, Lauerer M, Schulze E-D, Caboche M and Stitt M 1997 Accumulation of nitrate in the shoot acts as a signal to regulate shoot-root allocation in tobacco. Plant J. 11, 671–691.Google Scholar
  33. Schjørring J K 1986 Nitrate and ammonium absorption by plants growing at sufficient or insufficient level of phosphorus in nutrient solutions. Plant Soil 91, 313–318.Google Scholar
  34. Simpson R J, Lambers H and Dalling M J 1982 Kinetin application to roots and its effect on uptake, translocation and distribution of nitrogen in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown with a split root system. Physiol. Plant. 56, 430–435.Google Scholar
  35. Steiner A A 1984 The universal nutrient solution. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Soilless Culture. pp. 633–649. International Society for Soilless Culture, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  36. Thorsteinsson B and Eliasson L 1990 Growth retardation induced by nutritional deficiency or abscisic acid in Lemna gibba: The relationship between growth rate and endogenous cytokinin content. Plant Growth Regul. 9, 171–181.Google Scholar
  37. Van der Werf A and Nagel O W 1996 Carbon allocation to shoots and roots in relation to nitrogen supply is mediated by cytokinins and sucrose: opinion. Plant Soil 185, 21–32.Google Scholar
  38. Van Rhijn J A, Heskamp H H, Davelaar E, Jordi W, Leloux M S and Brinkman U A T 2001 Quantitative determination of glycosylated and aglycon isoprenoid cytokinins at sub-picomolar levels by microcolumn liquid chromatography combined with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. 929, 31–42.Google Scholar
  39. Vonk C R, Davelaar E and Ribôt S A 1986 The role of cytokinins in relation to flower-bud blasting in Iris cv. Ideal: Cytokinin determination by an improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plant Growth Regul. 4, 65–74.Google Scholar
  40. Wagner B M and Beck E 1993 cytokinins in the perennial herb Urtica dioica L. as influenced by its nitrogen status. Planta 190, 511–518.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Corine C. de Groot
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Leo F. M. Marcelis
    • 1
  • Riki van den Boogaard
    • 2
  • Werner M. Kaiser
    • 4
  • Hans Lambers
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Plant Research InternationalWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Agrotechnological Research Institute (ATO)WageningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Plant EcophysiologyUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Julius-von-Sachs-Institut of BiosciencesUniversity of WuerzburgWuerzburgGermany
  5. 5.School of Plant BiologyThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  6. 6.Plant EcophysiologyUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations