Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 47–53

Racial differences in genetic factors associated with breast cancer

  • Foluso O. Ademuyiwa
  • Olufunmilayo I. Olopade
Article

Abstract

Breast cancer in African Americans in the US is more aggressive and has a worse outcome than breast cancer in Caucasians. Although the incidence of breast cancer among US whites is higher than among blacks, the mortality rates for blacks are much higher. Breast cancer in blacks is also associated with a more advanced stage at presentation and pathologically aggressive tumors commonly exhibiting estrogen receptor negativity, higher S-phase fractions, and higher numbers of involved lymph nodes. This paper reviews some of the genetic factors that have been shown to be associated with a difference in breast cancer outcome between African Americans and Caucasians in the US such as the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, p53 mutations, UGT1A1 gene polymorphisms, and HER-2/neu gene amplifications/overexpression.

breast cancer African American Caucasian genetic differences 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    American Cancer Society: Breast Cancer Facts and Figures 2001-2002. American Cancer Society, 2001Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reis LAG, Kosary KL, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Edwards BK: SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973-1996. Bethseda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 1998Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hunter CP: Epidemiology, stage at diagnosis, and tumor biology of breast carcinoma in multiracial and multiethnic populations. Cancer 88: 1193-1202, 2000Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Trock BJ: Breast cancer in African American women: Epidemiology and tumor biology. Breast Cancer Res and Treatment 40: 11-24, 1996Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gray GE, Henderson BE, Pike MC: Changing ratio of breast cancer incidence rates with age of black females compared with white females in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 64: 461-463, 1980Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marbella AM, Layde PM: Racial trends in age-specific breast cancer mortality rates in US women. Am J Public Health 91: 118-121, 2001Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pearlman DN, Rakowski W, Ehrich B, Clark MA: Breast cancer screening practices among black, Hispanic, and white women: Reassessing differences. Am J Prev Med 12: 327-337, 1996Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rawl SM, Champion VL, Menon U, Foster JL: The impact of age and race on mammography practices. Health Care for Women Int 21: 583-597, 2000Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Miller AM, Champion VL: Attitudes about breast cancer and mammography: Racial, income, and educational differences. Women's Health 26: 41-63, 1997Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    O'Malley MS, Earp JL, Hawley ST, Schell MJ, Mathews HF, Mitchell J: The association of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and physician recommendation for mammography: Who gets the message about breast cancer screening? Am J Public Health 91: 49-54, 2001Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zaloznik AJ: Breast cancer stage at diagnosis: Caucasians versus Afro-Americans. Breast Cancer Res and Treatment 34: 195-198, 1995Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Elledge RM, Clark GM, Chamness GC, Osborne CK: Tumor biologic factors and breast cancer prognosis among white, Hispanic, and black women in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 86: 705-712, 1994Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eley JW, Hill HA, Chen VW, Austin DF, Wesley MN, Muss HB, Greenberg RS, Coates RJ, Correa P, Redmond CK, Hunter CP, Herman AA, Kurman R, Blacklow R, Shapiro S, Edwards BK: Racial differences in survival from breast cancer: Results of the National Cancer Institute Black/White Cancer Survival Study. JAMA 272: 947-954, 1994Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Martin A-M, Weber BL: Geneticand hormonal risk factors in breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 92: 1126-1135, 2000Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Key TJ: Serum estradiol and breast cancer risk. Endocrine-Related Cancer 6: 175-180, 1999Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moorman PG, Jones BA, Millikan RC, Hall IJ, Newman B: Race, anthropometric factors, and stage at diagnosis of breast cancer. Am J Epid 153: 284-291, 2001Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marcus PM, Baird DD, Millikan RC, Moorman PG, Qaqish B, Newman B: Adolescent reproductive events and subsequent breast cancer risk. Am J Public Health 89: 1244-1247, 1999Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Natarajan N, Nemoto T, Mettlin C, Murphy GP: Racerelated differences in breast cancer patients: Results of the 1982 National Survey of Breast Cancer by the American College of Surgeons. Cancer 56: 1704-1709, 1985Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group: Tamoxifen for Early Breast Cancer: An Overview of the Randomised Trials. Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group. Lancet 351: 1451-1467, 1998Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chu KC, Anderson WF, Fritz A, Ries LAG, Brawley O: Frequency distribution of breast cancer characteristics classified by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status for eight racial/ethnic groups. Cancer 92: 37-45, 2001Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Welcsh PL, King M-C: BRCA1 and BRCA2 and the genetics of breast and ovarian cancer. Human Mol Gen 10: 705-713, 2001Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Phillips KA: Currents perspectives on BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated breast cancer. Int Med J 31: 349-356, 2001Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fackenthal JD, Olopade OI: Inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer. Advances in Oncology 16: 10-18, 2000Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hendenfalk I, Duggan D, Chen Y, Radmacher M, Bittner M, Simon R, Meltzer P, Gusterson B, Esteller M, Kallioniemi O-P, Wilfond B, Borg A, Trent J: Geneexpression profiles in hereditary breast cancer. N Engl J Med 344: 539-548, 2001Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Breast Cancer Information Core Database: www.nhgri. nih.gov/Intramural_research/Lab_transfer/Bic/resourcesGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Abeliovich D, Kaduri L, Lerer I, Weinberg N, Amir G, Sagi M, Zlotogora J, Heching N, Peretz T: The founder mutations 185delAG and 5382insC in BRCA1 and 6174delT in BRCA2 appear in 60% of ovarian cancer and 30% of early-onset breast cancer patients among Ashkenazi women. Am J Hum Genet 60: 505-14, 1997Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Newman B, Mu H, Butler LM, Millikan RC, Moorman PG, King MC: Frequency of breast cancer attributable to BRCA1 in a population based series of American women. JAMA 279: 915-921, 1998Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Frank TS, Manley SA, Olopade OI, Cummings S, Garber JE, Bernhardt B, Antman K, Russo D, Wood ME, Mullineau L, Isaacs C, Peshkin B, Buys S, Venne V, Rowley PT, Loader S, Offit K, Robson M, Hampel H, Brener D, Winer EP, Clark S, Weber B, Strong LC, Rieger P, McClure M, Ward BE, Shattuck-Eidens D, Oliphant A, Skolnick MH, Thomas A: Sequence analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2: Correlation of mutations with family history and ovarian cancer risk. J Clin Oncol 16: 2417-2425, 1998Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Olopade OI, Fackenthal JD, Dunston G, Tainsky M, Collins F, Whitfield-Broome C: Breast Cancer Genetics in African Americans. Presented at the African American Breast Cancer Summit, Washington DC, September 2000Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Couch FJ, DeShano ML, Blackwood MA, Calzone K, Stopfer J, Campeau L, Ganguly A, Rebbeck T, Weber BL: BRCA1 mutations in women attending clinics that evaluate the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 336: 1409-1415, 1997Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gao Q, Neuhansen S, Cumming S, Luce M, Olopade OI: Recurrent germ-line BRCA1 mutations in extended African American families with early-onset breast cancer. Am J Hum Genet 60: 1233-1236, 1997Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Panguluri RCK, Brody LC, Modali R, Utley K, Adams-Campbell L, Day AA, Whitfield-Broome C, Dunston GM: BRCA1 mutations in African Americans. Hum Genet 105: 28-31, 1999Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mefford HC, Baumbach L, Panguluri RC, Whitfield-Broome C, Szabo C, Smith S, King MC, Dunston G, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Arena F: Evidence for a BRCA1 founder mutation in families of West African ancestry. Am J Hum Genet 65: 575-578, 1999Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shen D, Wu Y, Subbarao M, Bhat H, Chillar R, Vadgama JV: Mutation analysis of BRCA1 gene in African-American patients with breast cancer. J Natl Med Assoc 92: 29-35, 2000Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gao Q, Tomlinson G, Das S, Cumming S, Sveen L, Fackenthal J, Schumm P, Olopade OI: Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among clinic-based African American families with breast cancer. Hum Genet 107: 186-191, 2000Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Taioli E, Trachman J, Chen X, Toniolo P, Garte SJ: A CYP1A1 restriction fragment length polymorphism is associated with breast cancer in African-American women. Cancer Res 55: 3757-3758, 1995Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bailey LR, Roodi N, Verrier CS, Yee CJ, Dupont WD, Parl FF: Breast cancer and CYPIA1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms: Evidence of a lack of association in Caucasians and African Americans. Cancer Res 58: 65-70, 1998Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ishibe N, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Spiegelman D, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Kelsey KT, Hunter DJ: Cigarette smoking, cytochrome P4501A1 polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk in the nurses' health study. Cancer Res 58: 667-671, 1998Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Guillemette C, Millikan RC, Newman B, Housman DE: Geneticpolymor phisms in uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 and association with breast cancer among African Americans. Cancer Res 60: 950-956, 2000Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hall D, Ybazeta G, Destro-Bisol G, Petzl-Erler ML, DiRienzo A: Variability at the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 promoter in human populations and primates. Pharmacogenetics 9: 591-599, 1999Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Beutler E, Gelbart T, Demina A: Racial variability in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 (UGT1A1) promoter: A balanced polymorphism for regulation of bilirubin metabolism? Proc Natl Acad Sci 95: 8170-8174, 1998Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer Database: www.iarc.fr/p53Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rose DP, Royak-Schaler R: Tumor biology and prognosis in black breast cancer patients: A review. Cancer Detection and Prev 2516-31, 2001Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Easton D, Ford D, Peto J: Inherited susceptibility to breast cancer. Cancer Surv 18: 95-113, 1993Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Thor AD, Moore DH II, Edgerton SM, Kawasaki ES, Reihsaus E, Lynch HT, Marcus JN, Schwartz L, Chen LC, Mayall BH: Accumulation of p53 tumor suppressor gene protein: An independent marker of prognosis in breast cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 84: 845-855, 1992Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shiao Y-H, Chen VW, Scheer WD, Wu XC, Correa P: Racial disparity in the association of p53 gene alterations with breast cancer survival. Cancer Res 55: 1485-1490, 1995Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shiao Y-H, Chen W, Wu XC, Scheer WD, Lehmann HP, Malcom GT, Boudreau DA, Ruiz B, Correa P: Racial comparison of p53 alterations in breast cancer: Difference in prognosticvalue. In vivo 10: 169-173, 1996Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Blaszyk H, Vaughn CB, Hartmann A, McGovern RM, Schroeder JJ, Cunningham J, Schaid D, Sommer SS, Kovach JS: Novel pattern of p53 gene mutations in an American black cohort with high mortality from breast cancer. Lancet 343: 1195-1197, 1994Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Menard S, Fortis S, Castiglioni F, Agresti R, Balsari A. HER2 as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. Oncology 61: 67-72, 2001Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Xie D, Shu X-O, Deng Z, Wen W-Q, Creek KE, Dai Q, Gao Y-T, Jin F, Zheng W: Population-based, case-control study of HER2 genetic polymorphism and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 92: 412-417, 2000Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Weiss SE, Tartter PI, Ahmed S, Brower ST, Brusco C, Bossolt K, Amberson JB, Bratton J: Ethnicdifferen ces in risk and prognostic factors for breast cancer. Cancer 76: 268-274, 1995Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Foluso O. Ademuyiwa
    • 1
  • Olufunmilayo I. Olopade
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of MedicineUniversity of ChicagoChicago

Personalised recommendations