Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 31–45 | Cite as

The PDD Behavior Inventory: A Rating Scale for Assessing Response to Intervention in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

  • Ira L. Cohen
  • Susan Schmidt-Lackner
  • Raymond Romanczyk
  • Vicki Sudhalter


The PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) is a rating scale filled out by caregivers or teachers that was designed to assess children having a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD; autism, Asperger disorder, PDD-NOS, or childhood disintegrative disorder). Both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are assessed in the scale, making it useful for treatment studies in which decreases in maladaptive behaviors and improvements in adaptive social and language skills relevant to PDD are expected. The adaptive behaviors assessed include core features of the disorder such as joint attention skills, pretend play, and referential gesture. The maladaptive behaviors sample a wide variety of behaviors observed in both lower- and higher-functioning individuals and include stereotyped behaviors, fears, aggression, social interaction deficits, and aberrant language. The inventory was found to have a high degree of internal consistency. Inter-rater reliability was better for adaptive behaviors than for maladaptive behaviors. Factor analyses confirmed the structure of the PDDBI and indicated good construct validity. In a subsample of children between 3 and 6 years of age, raw scores for adaptive behaviors increased with age in the parent and teacher versions, as did measures of social pragmatic problems. It was concluded that the PDDBI is both reliable and valid and is useful in providing information not typically available in most instruments used to assess children with PDD.

Autism pervasive developmental disorder rating scale psychometrics treatment assessment 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aman, M. G., Tasse', M. J., Rohajn, J., & Hammer, D. (1996). The Nisonger CBRF: A child behavior rating form for children with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 17, 41-57.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders–IV. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Anastasi, A. (1988). Psychological testing. (6th ed.). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  4. Barkley, R. A. (1981). Hyperactive children: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Barthelemy, C., Adrien, J. L., Tanguay, P., Garreau, B., Fermanian, J., Roux, S., Sauvage, D., & Lelord, G. (1990). The Behavioral Summarized Evaluation: Validity and reliability of a scale for the assessment of autistic behaviors. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 189-204.Google Scholar
  6. Berument, S. K., Rutter, M., Lord, C., Pickles, A., & Bailey, A. (1999). Autism screening questionnaire: Diagnostic validity. British Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 444-451.Google Scholar
  7. Buitelaar, J. K., Van der Gaag, R., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. (1999). Exploring the boundaries of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified: Analyses of data from the DSM-IV autistic disorder field trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 33-43.Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, I. L. (2003). Criterion-related validity of the PDD behavior inventory. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 47-53.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, I. L., Sudhalter, V., Landon-Jimenez, D., & Keogh, M (1993). A neural network approach to the classification of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23, 443-466.Google Scholar
  10. Conners, C. K. (1973). Rating scales for use in drug studies with children. Psychophamacological Bulletin. 24-29. Au Please supply missing informationGoogle Scholar
  11. Fisch, G. S., Cohen, I. L., Wolf, E. G., & Friedman, E. (1985). The Autistic Descriptors Checklist (ADC): A preliminary report [letter]. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 15, 233-234.Google Scholar
  12. Gilliam, J. E. (1995). Gilliam Autism Rating Scale. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  13. Krug, D. A., Arick, J., & Almond, P. (1980). Behavior checklist for identifying severely handicapped individuals with high levels of autistic behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychia-try, 21, 221-229.Google Scholar
  14. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., & Risi, S. (1999). Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). (Manual ed.). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  15. Lord, C., Rutter, M., Goode, S., Heemsbergen, S., Jordan, J., Mawhood, L., & Schopler, E. (1989). Autism diagnostic observation schedule: A standardized observation of communicative and social behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Dis-orders, 19, 363-366.Google Scholar
  16. Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive develop-mental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659-685.Google Scholar
  17. Mundy, P., & Crowson, M. (1997). Joint attention and early social communication: Implications for research on intervention with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27, 653-676.Google Scholar
  18. Mundy, P., Sigman, M., & Kasari, C. (1990). A longitudinal study of joint attention and language development in autistic chil-dren. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 115-128.Google Scholar
  19. Mundy, P., Sigman, M., Ungerer, J., & Sherman, T. (1987). Nonverbal communication and play correlates of language development in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 344-364.Google Scholar
  20. Parks, S. L. (1993). The assessment of autistic children: A selective review of available instruments. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 255-267.Google Scholar
  21. Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., & Renner, B. R. (1988). The Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  22. Sigman, M., Mundy, P., Sherman, T., & Ungerer, J. (1986). Social interactions of autistic, mentally retarded and normal children and their caregivers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 647-655.Google Scholar
  23. Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales–Interview Edition: Survey Form Manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance.Google Scholar
  24. StatSoft. (1995). Statistica. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ira L. Cohen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Susan Schmidt-Lackner
    • 3
  • Raymond Romanczyk
    • 4
  • Vicki Sudhalter
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNew York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental DisabilitiesStaten Island
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyNew York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental DisabilitiesStaten Island
  3. 3.Child Psychiatry Division, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesUCLA Neuropsychiatric InstituteLos Angeles90024
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyBinghamton UniversityBinghamton

Personalised recommendations