Advertisement

Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 83–86 | Cite as

Prostate cancer in black and white Americans

  • Sreekanth ReddyEmail author
  • Marc Shapiro
  • Ronald MortonJr.
  • Otis W. Brawley
Article

Abstract

The prostate cancer incidence and mortality of black Americans is among the highest in the world. The reasons have not been adequately explained. Similar disparities have been noted for men of sub-Saharan origin living in Brazil and the Caribbean. Avenues of investigation have assessed racial and ethnic differences in diet as well as possible differences in the prevalence of genetics (both polymorphisms and mutations). There are studies to suggest that there are no racial differences in outcome when there is equal treatment. Several studies show that there are racial differences in patterns of care in the US and it has been hypothesized that this contributes to some of the racial disparity in survival after diagnosis.

prostate cancer race genetics outcomes hormones 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference

  1. 1.
    Glover FEJ,Coffey DS,Douglas LL,Russell H,Cadigan M,Tulloch T,Wedderburn K,Wan RL,Baker TD,Walsh PC: Familial study of prostate cancer in Jamaica. Urology 52: 441-443, 1998Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bouchardy C,Mirra AP,Khlat M,Parkin DM,de Souza JM,Gotlieb SL: Ethnicity and cancer risk in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1: 21-27, 1991Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Whittemore AS,Kolonel LN,Wu AH,John EM,Gallagher RP,Howe GR,Burch JD,Hankin J,Dreon DM,West DW: Prostate cancer in relation to diet, physical activity, and body size in blacks, whites, and Asians in the United States and Canada. J Natl Cancer Inst 87: 652-661, 1995Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hayes RB,Ziegler RG,Gridley G,Swanson C,Greenberg RS,Swanson GM,Schoenberg JB,Silverman DT,Pottern LM,Liff J,Schwartz AG,Fraumeni JF Jr,Hoover RN: Dietary factors and risks for prostate cancer among blacks and whites in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8: 25-34, 1999Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brawley OW,Ford LG,Thompson IM,Perlman JA,Kramer BS. 5-Alpha-reductase inhibition and prostate cancer prevention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 3: 177-182, 1994Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wu AH,Whittemore AS,Kolonel LN,John EM,Gallagher RP,West DW,Hankin J,Teh CZ,Dreon DM,Paffenbarger RS Jr.: Serum androgens and sex hormonebinding globulins in relation to lifestyle factors in older African-American, white, and Asian men in the United States and Canada. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 4: 735-741, 1995Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Soderstrom T,Wadelius M,Andersson SO,Johansson JE,Johansson S,Granath F,Rane A: 5 alpha-reductase 2 polymorphisms as risk factors in prostate cancer. Pharmacogenetics 12: 307-312, 2002Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shibata A,Garcia MI,Cheng I,Stamey TA,McNeal JE,Brooks JD,Henderson S,Yemoto CE,Peehl DM: Polymorphisms in the androgen receptor and type II 5 alpha-reductase genes and prostate cancer prognosis. Prostate 52: 269-278, 2002Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Platz EA,Rimm EB,Willett WC,Kantoff PW,Giovannucci E: Racial variation in prostate cancer incidence and in hormonal system markers among male health professionals. J Natl Cancer Inst 92: 2009-2017, 2000Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Washburn JG,Wojno KJ,Dey J,Powell IJ,Macoska JA: 8pter-p23 deletion is associated with racial differences in prostate cancer outcome. Clin Cancer Res 6: 4647-4652, 2000Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yang G,Addai J,Ittmann M,Wheeler TM,Thompson TC: Elevated caveolin-1 levels in African-American versus white American prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 6: 3430-3433, 2000Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mouraviev V,Li L,Tahir SA,Yang G,Timme TL,Goltsov A,Ren C,Satoh T,Wheeler TM,Ittmann MM,Miles BJ,Amato RJ,Kadmon D,Thompson TC: The role of caveolin-1 in androgen insensitive prostate cancer. J Urol 168: 1589-1596, 2002Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Berman DB,Wagner-Costalas J,Schultz DC,Lynch HT,Daly M,Godwin AK: Two distinct origins of a common BRCA1 mutation in breast-ovarian cancer families: A genetic study of 15 185delAG-mutation kindreds. Am J Hum Genet 58: 1166-1176, 1996Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Adlercreutz H,Mazur W,Bartels P,Elomaa V,Watanabe S,Wahala K,Landstrom M,Lundin E,Bergh A,Damber JE,Aman P,Widmark A,Johansson A,Zhang JX,Hallmans G: Phytoestrogens and prostate disease. J Nutr 130: 658S-659S, 2000Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Helzlsouer KJ,Huang HY,Alberg AJ,Hoffman S,Burke A,Norkus EP,Morris JS,Comstock GW: Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 92: 2018-2023, 2000Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Adlercreutz H,Mazur W,Bartels P,Elomaa V,Watanabe S,Wahala K,Landstrom M,Lundin E,Bergh A,Damber JE,Aman P,Widmark A,Johansson A,Zhang JX,Hallmans G: Phytoestrogens and prostate disease. J Nutr 130: 658S-159S, 2000Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brawley OW: Prostate cancer and black men. Semin Urol Oncol 16: 184-186, 1998Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bennett CL,Ferreira MR,Davis TC,Kaplan J,Weinberger M,Kuzel T,Seday MA,Sartor O: Relation between literacy, race, and stage of presentation among low-income patients with prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 16: 3101-3104, 1998Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Freeman VL,Leszczak J,Cooper RS: Race and the histologic grade of prostate cancer. Prostate 30: 79-84, 1997Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Harlan L,Brawley O,Pommerenke F,Wali P,Kramer B: Geographic, age, and racial variation in the treatment of local/regional carcinoma of the prostate. J Clin Oncol 13: 93-100, 1995Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Klabunde CN,Potosky AL,Harlan LC,Kramer BS: Trends and black/white differences in treatment for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Med Care 36: 1337-1348, 1998Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schapira MM,McAuliffe TL,Nattinger AB: Treatment of localized prostate cancer in African-American compared with Caucasian men. Less use of aggressive therapy for comparable disease. Med Care 33: 1079-1088, 1995Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Optenberg SA,Thompson IM,Friedrichs P,Wojcik B,Stein CR,Kramer B: Race, treatment, and long-term survival from prostate cancer in an equal-access medical care delivery system. JAMA 274: 1599-1605, 1995Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Young CD,Lewis P,Weinberg V,Lee TT,Coleman CW,Roach M, III: The impact of race on freedom from prostate-specific antigen failure in prostate cancer patients treated with definitive radiation therapy. Semin Urol Oncol 18: 121-126, 2000Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thompson I,Tangen C,Tolcher A,Crawford E,Eisenberger M,Moinpour C: Association of African-American ethnic background with survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 93: 219-225, 2001Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Roach M, III,Krall J,Keller JW,Perez CA,Sause WT,Doggett RL,Rotman M,Russ H,Pilepich MV,Asbell SO: The prognostic significance of race and survival from prostate cancer based on patients irradiated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocols (1976-1985). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 24: 441-449, 1992Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eastham JA,Kattan MW: Disease recurrence in black and white men undergoing radical prostatectomy for clinical stage T1-T2 prostate cancer. J Urol 163: 143-145, 2000Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Satariano WA,Ragland KE,Van Den Eeden SK: Cause of death in men diagnosed with prostate carcinoma. Cancer 83: 1180-1188, 1998Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Etzioni R,Cha R,Feuer EJ,Davidov O: Asymptomatic incidence and duration of prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol 148: 775-785, 1998Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sreekanth Reddy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marc Shapiro
    • 1
  • Ronald MortonJr.
    • 2
  • Otis W. Brawley
    • 1
  1. 1.Winship Cancer InstituteEmory UniversityAtlanta
  2. 2.Department of UrologyBaylor School of MedicineHouston

Personalised recommendations