Inorganic Materials

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 151–160

X-ray Diffraction Study of the Structure and Defect System of Yb-Activated (Na0.5Gd0.5)WO4 Crystals

  • E. V. Zharikov
  • G. M. Kuz'micheva
  • D. A. Lis
  • Yu. M. Papin
  • V. B. Rybakov
  • B. A. Smirnov
  • K. A. Subbotin

Abstract

Nominally pure and Yb-activated Czochralski-grown (Na0.5Gd0.5)WO4 crystals (scheelite type) were studied by x-ray diffraction (phase analysis, unit-cell parameters, and structure refinement by the Rietveld method and single-crystal techniques). A pseudotetragonal (orthorhombic) superstructure was revealed, which was shown to have doubled unit-cell parameters compared to the scheelite cell. Some of the crystals were found to contain tungsten and oxygen vacancies, which give rise to additional optical absorption. The effects of the growth and heat-treatment conditions and Yb activation on the structure, defect system, and additional absorption spectrum of (Na0.5Gd0.5)WO4 are analyzed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    Kaminskii, A.A., Aminov, L.K., Ermolaev, V.L., et al., Fizika i spektroskopiya lazernykh kristallov (Physics and Spectroscopy of Laser Crystals), Moscow: Nauka, 1986.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Voron'ko, Yu.K., Gessen, S.B., Kudryavtsev, A.B., et al., Spectroscopic Studies of Disordering in Garnet-Structure Crystals, Trudy Inst. Obshch. Fiz. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 1991, vol. 29, pp. 3–49.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Subbotin, K.A., Zharikov, E.V., and Smirnov, V.A., Yb and Er Doped NaGd(WO4)2, NaLa(WO4)2, and NaBi(WO4)2 Single Crystals as 1 and 1.5 µm Laser Media, Opt. Spektrosk., 2002, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 657–664.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Efremov, V.A., Abstracts of Papers, Conf. on Powder Diffraction and Crystal Chemistry, St. Petersburg, 1994, p. 31.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Young, R.A., Sakthivel, A., Moss, T.S., and Paiva-Santos, C.O., Rietveld Analysis of X-ray and Neutron Powder Diffraction Patterns: User's Guide to Program DBWS-9411, 1995.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhurov, V.V. and Ivanov, S.A., PROFIT Program for Structure Refinement Using Powder Diffraction Data, Kristallografiya, 1997, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 239–243.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Enraf-Nonius CAD-4 Software: Version 5.0, Delft: Enraf-Nonius, 1989.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Farrugia, L.J., WinGX98: X-ray Crystallographic Programs for Windows, Version 1.5a, Glasgow, Univ. of Glasgow, 1996.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zalkin, A. and Templeton, D.H., X-ray Diffraction Refinement of the Calcium Tungstate Structure, J. Chem. Phys., 1964, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 501–504.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sheldrick, G.M., SHELXL97: Program for the Refinement of Crystal Structures, Göttingen: Univ. of Göttingen, 1997.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Van Uitert, L.G. and Soden, R.G., Effects of Rare-Earth Ion Substitution upon the Fluorescence of Terbium Hexa-Antipyrene Tri-Iodine and Sodium Europium Tungstate, J. Chem. Phys., 1962, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 1797–1800.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rode, E.Ya., Karpov, V.N., and Ivanova, M.M., Effect of the Rare-Earth Ion on the Nature of Phases in Na2WO4-R2(WO4)3 (R = Rare Earth) Systems, Zh. Neorg. Khim., 1971, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1713–1716.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mokhosoev, M.V., Krivobok, V.I., Aleikina, S.M., et al., Sodium Rare Earth Tungstates and Molybdates, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Neorg. Mater., 1967, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1657–1660.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Klevtsova, R.F., Glinskaya, L.A., Kozeeva, L.N., and Klevtsov, N.V., Crystal Structure of NaLu(WO4)2 and Na5Lu(WO4)4, Kristallografiya, 1972, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 768–772.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kovba, L.M., Murav'eva, I.A., Trunov, V.K., et al., A New Group of Ternary Tungstates, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1967, vol. 183, no. 6, pp. 1290–1291.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Spitsyn, V.I. and Trunov, V.K., New Data on MLn(AO4)2 Tungstates and Molybdates, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1969, vol. 185, no. 4, pp. 854–855.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kröger, F.A., The Chemistry of Imperfect Crystals, Amsterdam: North Holland, 1964. Translated under the title Khimiya nesovershennykh kristallov, Moscow: Mir, 1969.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shannon, R.D., Revised Effective Ionic Radii and Systematic Studies of Interatomic Distances in Halides and Chalcogenides, Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A: Cryst. Phys., Diffr., Theor. Gen. Crystallogr., 1976, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 751–767.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kuz'micheva, G.M., Kozlikin, S.N., Zharikov, E.V., et al., Point Defects in Gadolinium Gallium Garnet, Zh. Neorg. Khim., 1988, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 2200–2204.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nekrasov, B.V., Obshchaya khimiya (General Chemistry), Moscow: Gos. Nauchno-Tekh. Izd. Khimicheskoi Literatury, 1962, pp. 323–335.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sokolenko, E.V., Zhukovskii, V.M., Buyanova, E.S., and Krasnobaev, Ya.A., Luminescent Properties of Oxygen-Disordered Scheelite-Structure Tungstates: I. Steady-State Luminescence, Neorg. Mater., 1998, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 611–615 [Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 499–502].Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sokolenko, E.V., Zhukovskii, V.M., Buyanova, E.S., and Krasnobaev, Ya.A., Luminescent Properties of Oxygen-Disordered Scheelite-Structure Tungstates: II. Thermoluminescence, Neorg. Mater., 1998, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 616–618 [Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 503–505].Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gaister, A.V., Zharikov, E.V., Protopopov, V.N., and Smirnov, V.A., Growth and Cr3+ Broadband Luminescence of Mg2SiO4:Cr and Mg2SiO4:Cr,Li Crystals, Trudy V mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii “Kristally: rost, svoistva, real'naya struktura, primenenie” (Proc. V Int. Conf. on the Growth, Properties, Real Structure, and Application of Crystals), Aleksandrov: VNIISIMS, 2001, vol. 2, pp. 381–395.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zadneprovskii, B.I., Nefedov, V.A., Polyanskii, E.V., and Akhmetova, G.L., NaBi(WO4)2 Single Crystals: Promising Material for Cerenkov Detectors of High-Energy Particles, Trudy IV mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii “Kristally: rost, svoistva, real'naya struktura, primenenie” (Proc. IV Int. Conf. on the Growth, Properties, Real Structure, and Application of Crystals), Aleksandrov: VNIISIMS, 1999, vol. 1, pp. 263–277.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Templton, D.H. and Zalkin, A., Crystal Structure of Europium Tungstate, Acta Crystallogr., 1963, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 762–766.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Trunov, V.K., Efremov, V.A., and Velikodnyi, Yu.A., Kristallokhimiya i svoistva dvoinykh molibdatov i vol'framatov (Crystal Chemistry and Properties of Double Molybdates and Tungstates), Leningrad: Nauka, 1986.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Egorova, A.N., Maier, A.A., Nevskii, N.N., and Provotorov, M.V., Crystal Structure of LiCe(MoO4)2, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Neorg. Mater., 1982, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2036–2038.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Egorova, A.N., Fykin, L.E., Rider, E.E., et al., Detailed Structure of LiCe(MoO4)2-Based Solid Solutions, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Neorg. Mater., 1982, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2039–2043.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lis, D.A., Soubbotin, K.A., Zharikov, E.V., et al., Growth and Spectroscopic Study of Yb3+:NaGd(WO4)2-Potential Laser Material, XVIII Topical Meeting on Advanced Solid State Photonics, 2003, San Antonio, Technical Digest.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kuz'micheva, G.M., Rybakov, V.B., Novikov, S.G., et al., Structural Disordering in Rare Earth Scandium Borates of the Huntite Family, Zh. Neorg. Khim., 1999, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 352–366.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica” 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. V. Zharikov
    • 1
  • G. M. Kuz'micheva
    • 2
  • D. A. Lis
    • 3
  • Yu. M. Papin
    • 3
  • V. B. Rybakov
    • 4
  • B. A. Smirnov
    • 3
  • K. A. Subbotin
    • 3
  1. 1.Mendeleev University of Chemical TechnologyMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Lomonosov State Academy of Fine Chemical TechnologyMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Research Center for Laser Materials and TechnologyProkhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations