Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 17–25 | Cite as

Evolution of High-level, Multiple Anthelmintic Resistance on a Sheep Farm in Malaysia

  • P. Chandrawathani
  • P.J. Waller
  • M. Adnan
  • J. Höglund


Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep and goats on a government farm in north Malaysia was monitored over a 3-year period (1997–2000). The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was conducted on young sheep at the beginning and end of this period. Changes in management, designed to reduce the selection pressure for the development of anthelmintic resistance, were also implemented during this time. By far the most important parasite problem was Haemonchus contortus. In 1997, this nematode was found to be resistant to levamisole, with suspected resistance to closantel and moxidectin. However, when the FECRT was repeated 3 years later, its resistance status had become much more severe, with resistance to benzimidazole, levamisole and ivermectin, and suspected resistance to moxidectin. This rapid evolution to multiple anthelmintic resistance is a major concern that needs to be arrested. There is an urgent need to evaluate other control strategies that incorporate livestock management, the `smart' use of drugs and non-chemotherapeutic approaches, such as biological control agents.

anthelmintic control drug resistance Haemonchus contortus helminth nematode 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Chandrawathani
    • 1
  • P.J. Waller
    • 2
  • M. Adnan
    • 1
  • J. Höglund
    • 3
  1. 1.Veterinary Research InstituteIpohMalaysia
  2. 2.National Veterinary InstituteSWEPARUppsalaSweden
  3. 3.SWEPAR, Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden

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