Elevation of Platelet Activating Factor, Inflammatory Cytokines, and Coagulation Factors in the Internal Jugular Vein of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
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- Hirashima, Y., Nakamura, S., Endo, S. et al. Neurochem Res (1997) 22: 1249. doi:10.1023/A:1021985030331
The aim of the present study was to examine the changes of inflammatory and coagulation factors in blood of the internal jugular vein, not of peripheral vein, in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The results show that while interleukin-6 (IL-6) and platelet activating factor (PAF) concentrations increased within first 4 days after SAH and remained elevated up to 14 days, interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β showed a transient increase between 5–9 days after SAH and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) remained unchanged. Also different coagulation factors were increased between 5–9 days after SAH. Moreover, patients with delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) displayed the highest levels of PAF and the coagulation factors, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT). These results suggest that elevation of PAF and other inflammatory cytokines following SAH may cause the hypercoagulation state that is associated with cerebral vasospasm and internal jugular vein may be more adequate vessel for sampling blood to examine these factors.
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