Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 57, Issue 3–4, pp 223–231 | Cite as

Effect of heat treatment on the proximate composition, energy values, and levels of some toxicants in African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seed varieties

  • Eugene N. Onyeike
  • Tina T. Omubo-Dede


The effects of heat treatments on the proximate composition, energy content, and levels of some antinutritional factors in brown and marble-colored African yam bean (AYB) seed flours were investigated. In raw brown and marble-colored AYB seed flours; moisture content, dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, ash, total carbohydrate and caloric value did not differ significantly at the 5% level. Autoclaving and cooking slightly increased the moisture level. Crude protein, crude fat, and ash contents were decreased by autoclaving and were further decreased by cooking. The decrease was not, however, considerable for the AYB that is not eaten raw and whose full nutritional potential as a legume can be derived only when heat treated, as previous reports have indicated for legume seeds.The levels of the toxicants were generally higher in the raw brown AYB compared to the marble-colored, and were generally reduced by both autoclaving and cooking. In the most commonly available and consumed marble-colored AYB, autoclaving at 121 °C, 15 psi for 20 min decreased cyanogenic glycosides by 46%, oxalate by 48.9%, tannin by 15.0%, saponin by 14.8% and trypsin inhibitors by 61.3% while cooking for 3.5 hours in tap water decreased these toxic factors by 66.5%, 70.3%, 72.2%, 48.7%, and 86.0%, respectively.The results indicate that for raw samples, varietal difference did not significantly affect nutrient composition though the toxicants were generally higher in the brown AYB than the marble-colored. Autoclaving decreased both nutrient value and the level of toxicants in the two seed types; values were further reduced by cooking. Of the toxicants, trypsin inhibitor was found to be the most heat-labile and of the heat treatment methods, cooking to tenderness is recommendable.

African yam bean seed varieties Energy content Heat treatments Proximate composition Toxicants 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene N. Onyeike
    • 1
  • Tina T. Omubo-Dede
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Nutrition and Toxicology Unit, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Port HarcourtPort Harcourt –Nigeria

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