Advertisement

Conduct Disorder in Girls: A Review of the Literature

  • Kate Keenan
  • Rolf Loeber
  • Stephanie Green
Article

Abstract

The study of Conduct Disorder (CD) has primarily been limited to boys. The lack of research resulted from a premise that CD in girls was rare. However, CD in girls is a relatively common psychiatric diagnosis, and appears to be associated with several serious outcomes, such as Antisocial Personality Disorder and early pregnancy. Understanding gender differences in the course and severity of CD may lead to important information about etiology. Empirical studies on precursors, developmental course, risk factors and treatment for CD in girls are reviewed, while highlighting similarities and differences between girls and boys. Generally, CD symptoms in girls are stable. Precursors to CD in girls probably include Oppositional Defiant Disorder and temperamental factors, but also may include certain negative cognitions. What distinguishes CD in girls is the high risk they have to develop comorbid conditions, especially internalizing disorders. Risk factors for CD in girls partly overlap with those known for boys, but some factors appear to be highly salient for girls. Finally, there may be some significant effects of gender on treatment efficacy. Implications of these findings for future etiologic research are discussed.

Girls sex differences conduct disorder development risk factors comorbidity treatment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Abikoff, H., Courtney, M., Pelham, W. E., & Koplewicz, H. S. (1994). Teacher's ratings of disruptive behaviors: The influence of halo effects. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 519–533.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., Howell, M. S., McConaughy, S. H., & Stanger, C. (1995). Six-year predictors of problems in a national sample: III. Transitions to young adult syndromes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 658–669.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, E. R. (1993). Analyzing change in short term longitudinal research using cohort-sequential designs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 929–940.Google Scholar
  5. Angold, A., & Rutter, M. (1992). Effects of age and pubertal status on depression in a large clinical sample. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 5–28.Google Scholar
  6. Biederman, J., Faraone, S., Milberger, S., Curtis, S., Chen, L., Marrs, A., Ouelette, C., Moore, P., & Spencer, T. (1996). Predictors of persistence and remission of ADHD into adolescence: Results from a four-year prospective follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 343–351.Google Scholar
  7. Bird, H. R., Gould, M. S., & Staghezza, B. (1993). Patterns of diagnostic comorbidity in a community sample of children aged 9 through 16 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 361–368.Google Scholar
  8. Bjerregaard, B., & Smith, C. (1993). Gender differences in gang participation, delinquency and substance use. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 9, 329–355.Google Scholar
  9. Björkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, M. J., & Kaukiainen, A. (1992). Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Developmental trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 117–127.Google Scholar
  10. Bohman, M., Cloninger, C. R., Von Knorring, A. L., & Sigvardsson, S. (1984). An adoption study of somatoform disorders. III. Cross-fostering analysis and genetic relationship to alcoholism and criminality. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 872–878.Google Scholar
  11. Breen, M. J., & Barkley, R. A. (1988). Child psychopathology and parenting stress in girls and boys having attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 13, 265–280.Google Scholar
  12. Brestan, E.V., & Eyberg, S. M. (1998). Empirically supported psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 180–189.Google Scholar
  13. Bybee, J. (1998). The emergence of gender differences in guilt during adolescence. In J. Bybee (Ed.), Guilt and children (pp. 113–123). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. Cadoret, R. J. (1978). Psychopathology in adopted away offspring of biologic parents with antisocial behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 176–184.Google Scholar
  15. Cairns, R. B., & Cairns, B. D. (1984). Predicting aggressive patterns in girls and boys: A developmental study. Aggressive Behavior, 10, 227–242.Google Scholar
  16. Cairns, R. B., Peterson, G., & Neckerman, H. J. (1988). Report from the social development laboratory, Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 298–309.Google Scholar
  17. Carlson, C. L., Tamm, L., & Gaub, M. (1997). Gender differences in children with ADHD, ODD, and co-occurring ADHD/ODD identified in a school population. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1706–1714.Google Scholar
  18. Caspi, A., Henry, B., McGee, R. O., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1995). Temperamental origins of child and adolescent behavior problems: From age three to age fifteen. Child Development, 66, 55–58.Google Scholar
  19. Caspi, A., Lynam, D., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1993). Unraveling girls' delinquency: Biological, dispositional, and contextual contributions to adolescent misbehavior. Developmental Psychology, 29, 19–30.Google Scholar
  20. Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (1991). Individual differences are accentuated during periods of social change: The sample case of girls at puberty. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 157–168.Google Scholar
  21. Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Krueger, R. F., & Schmutte, P. S. (1994). Are some people crime-prone? Replications of the personality-crime relationship across countries, genders, races and methods. Criminology, 32, 163–194.Google Scholar
  22. Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (1994). Differences in risk factors and adjustment for male and female delinquents in treatment foster care. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 3, 23–40.Google Scholar
  23. Cloninger, C. R., Reich, T., & Gize, S. B. (1975). The multifactorial model of disease transmission: II. Sex differences in the formal transmission of sociopathy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 11–22.Google Scholar
  24. Cohen, N. J. (1989). Sex differences in child psychiatric out patients: Cognitive, personality, and behavioral characteristics. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 20, 113–121.Google Scholar
  25. Cohen, P., Cohen, J., Kasen, S., Velez, C. N., Hartman, C., Johnson, J., Rojas, M., Brook, J., and Strevning, E. L. (1993). An epidemiological study of disorders in late childhood and adolescence. I. Age-and gender-specific prevalence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 851–867.Google Scholar
  26. Cole, P. M., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (1992). Emotional dysregulation in disruptive behavior disorders. In D. Cicchetti & S. L. Toth (Eds.), Development perspectives on depression, (pp. 173–209). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  27. Crick, N. R. (1995). Relational aggression: The role of intent attributions, feelings of distress, and provocation type. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 313–322.Google Scholar
  28. Devine, D., Long, P., & Forehand, R. (1993). A prospective study of adolescent sexual activity: Description, correlates, and predictors. Advances in Behavior Research Therapy, 15, 185–209.Google Scholar
  29. Dodge, K. A. (1980). Social cognition and children's aggressive behavior. Child Development, 51, 162–170.Google Scholar
  30. Downey, G., & Fledman, S. I. (1996). Implications of rejection sensitivity for intimate relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1327–1343.Google Scholar
  31. Downey, G., Lebolt, A., & Rincon, C. (1995). Rejection sensitivity and children's interpersonal difficulties. Unpublished manuscript. Columbia University.Google Scholar
  32. Downey, G., Freitas, A. L., Michaelis, B., & Khouri, H. (1998). The self-fulfilling prophecy in close relationships: Rejection sensitivity and rejection by romantic partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 545–560.Google Scholar
  33. Dumas, J. E., & Wahler, R. G. (1985). Indiscriminate mothering as a contextual factor in aggressive-oppositional child behavior: “Damned if you do and damned if you don't.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 1–17.Google Scholar
  34. DuRant, R. H., Cadenhead, C., Pendergrast, R. A., Slavens, G. G., & Linder, C. W. (1994). Factors associated with the use of violence among urban black adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 612–617.Google Scholar
  35. Elliott, D. S. (1994). Serious violent offenders: Onset, developmental course, and termination. Criminology, 32, 1–21.Google Scholar
  36. Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  37. Emery, R. E., & O'Leary, K. D. (1984). Marital discord and child behavior problems in a nonclinic sample. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 411–420.Google Scholar
  38. Eronen, M., Hakola, P., & Tiihonen, J. (1996). Mental disorder and homicidal behavior in Finland. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 497–501.Google Scholar
  39. Fagot, B. I. (1984). The consequents of problem behavior in toddler children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 383–396.Google Scholar
  40. Fagot, B. I., & Leve, L. D. (1998). Teacher ratings of externalizing behavior at school entry for boys and girls: Similar early predictors and different correlates. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 555–566.Google Scholar
  41. Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., Keenan, K., & Tsuang, M. T. (1991a). A family-genetic study of girls with DSM-III Attention Deficit Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 112–117.Google Scholar
  42. Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., Keenan, K., & Tsuang, M. T. (1991b). Separation of DSM-III attention deficit disorder and conduct disorder: evidence from a family-genetic study of American child psychiatric patients. Psychological Medicine, 21, 109–121.Google Scholar
  43. Farrington, D. P. (1987). Epidemiology. In H. C. Quay (Ed.), Handbook of juvenile delinquency (pp. 33–61). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. Feldman, S., & Downey, G. (1994). Rejection sensitivity as a mediator of the impact of childhood exposure to family violence on adult attachment. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 231–247.Google Scholar
  45. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Lynskey, M. T. (1994). The comorbidities of adolescent problem behaviors: A latent class model. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 339–354.Google Scholar
  46. Fleming, J. P., Kellam, S. G., & Brown, C. H. (1982). Early predictors of age at first use of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarettes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 9, 285–303.Google Scholar
  47. Fréchette, M., & Le Blanc, M. (1987). Delinquances et delinquants. Quebec, Canada: G. Morin.Google Scholar
  48. Galen, B. R., & Underwood, M. K. (1997). A developmental investigation of social aggression among children. Developmental Psychology, 33, 589–600.Google Scholar
  49. Garber, J., Quiggle, N. L., Panak, W., & Dodge, K. A. (1991). Aggression and depression in children: Comorbidity, specificity and social cognitive processing. In D. Cicchetti, & S. L. Toth (Eds.), Internalizing and externalizing expressions of dysfunction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  50. Ge, X., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H. (1996). Coming of age too early: Pubertal influences on girls' vulnerability to psychological distress. Child Development, 67, 3386–3400.Google Scholar
  51. Gittelman, R., Mannuzza, S., Shenker, R., & Bonagura, N. (1985). Hyperactive boys almost grown up. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 937–947.Google Scholar
  52. Goodman, S. H., & Kohlsdorf, B. (1994). The developmental psychopathology of conduct problems: Gender issues. In D. C. Fowles (Ed.), Progress in experimental, personality, and psychopathology research. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  53. Goodyer, I., & Cooper, P. J. (1993). A community study of depression in adolescent girls. II: The clinical features of identified disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 374–380.Google Scholar
  54. Graber, J. A., Lewinsohn, P. M., Seeley, J. R., and Brooks, J. (1997). Is psychopathology associated with the timing of pubertal development? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1768–1776.Google Scholar
  55. Griesler, P. C., Kandel, D. B., & Davies, M. (1998). Maternal smoking in pregnancy, child behavior problems, and adolescent smoking. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 8, 159–185.Google Scholar
  56. Hack, M., Breslau, N., Aram, D., Weissman, B., Klein, N., & Borawski-Clark, E. (1992). The effect of very low birth weight and social risk on neurocognitive abilities at school age. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 13, 412–420.Google Scholar
  57. Hartung, C., & Widiger, T. (1998). Gender differences in the diagnosis of mental disorders: Conclusions and controversies of the DSM-IV. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 260–278.Google Scholar
  58. Hawkins, J. D., Von Cleve, E., & Catalano, R. F. (1991). Reducing early childhood aggression: Results of a primary prevention program. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 208–217.Google Scholar
  59. Hayward, C., Killen, J. D., Wilson, D. M., Hammer, L. D., Litt, I. F., Kraemer, H. C., Haydel, F., Varady, A., & Taylor, C. B. (1997). Psychiatric risk associated with early puberty in adolescent girls. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 255–262.Google Scholar
  60. Huesmann, L. R., & Eron, L. (1984). Cognitive processes and the persistence of aggressive behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 10, 243–251.Google Scholar
  61. Huizinga, D. (1995). Developmental sequences in delinquency: Dynamic typologies. In L. J. Crockett & A. C. Crouter (Eds.), Pathways through adolescence: Individual development in relation to social contexts. The Penn State Series on Child & Adolescent Development. (pp. 15–34). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  62. Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. (1977). Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A longitudinal study of youth. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  63. Jessor, R., Donovan, J. E., & Widmer, K. (1980). Psychosocial factors in adolescent alcohol and drug use: The 1978 National Sample Study, and the 1974–1978 Panel Study (Unpublished final report). Boulder: Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado.Google Scholar
  64. Joffe, R. T., Offord, D. R., & Boyle, M. H. (1988). Ontario child health study: Suicidal behavior in youth aged 12–16 years. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1420–1423.Google Scholar
  65. Jouriles, E. N., Murphy, C. M., & O'Leary, K. D. (1989). Interspousal aggression, marital discord, and child problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 453–455.Google Scholar
  66. Kavanagh, K., & Hops, H. (1994). Good girls? Bad Boys? Gender and development as contexts for diagnosis and treatment. In T. H. Ollendick & R. J. Prinz (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 16, pp. 45–79). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  67. Keenan, K., & Shaw, D. S. (1997). Developmental and social influences on young girls' early problem behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 95–113.Google Scholar
  68. Keenan, K., Shaw, D. S., Delliquadri, E., Giovannelli, J., & Walsh, B. (1998). Evidence for the continuity of early problem behaviors: Application of a developmental model. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 443–454.Google Scholar
  69. Kovacs, M., Krol, R., & Voti, L. (1994). Early onset psychopathology and the risk for teenage pregnancy among clinically referred girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 106–113.Google Scholar
  70. Lahey, B. B., McBurnett, K., & Loeber, R. (in press). Are attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder developmental precursors to conduct disorder? In M. Lewis & A. Sameroff (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (2nd ed.). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  71. Lahey, B. B., Piacentini, J. C., McBurnett, K., Stone, P., Hartdagen, S., & Hynd, G. (1988). Psychopathology in the parents of children with conduct disorder and hyperactivity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 163–70.Google Scholar
  72. Lahey, B. B., Schwab-Stone, M., Goodman, S., Rathouz, P., Miller, T. L., Canino, G., Bird, H., & Jensen, P. (1998). Age and gender differences in oppositional behavior and conduct problems: A cross-sectional household study of middle childhood and adolescence. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  73. Lee, V. E., Burkam, D. T., Zimiles, H., & Ladewski, B. (1994). Family-structure and its effect on behavioral and emotional problems in young adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescents, 4, 405–437.Google Scholar
  74. Lewinsohn, P. M., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., Rhode, P., Gotlib, I. H., & Hops, H. (1994). Adolescent psychopathology: I. Psychosocial risk factors for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 302–315.Google Scholar
  75. Links, P. S., Boyle, M. H., & Offord, D. R. (1989). The prevalence of emotional disorder in children. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 85–91.Google Scholar
  76. Loeber, R. (1988). The natural histories of conduct problems, delinquency, and associated substance use: Evidence for developmental progressions. In B. B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 73–124). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  77. Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W. B. (1997). Antisocial behavior and mental health problems: Risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  78. Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Keenan, K., & Lahey, B. B. (1995). Which boys will fare worse? Early predictors of the onset of conduct disorder in a six-year longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 499–509.Google Scholar
  79. Loeber, R., & Keenan, K. (1994). Interaction between conduct disorder and its comorbid conditions: Effects of age and gender. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 497–523.Google Scholar
  80. Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1986). Family factors as correlates and predictors of juvenile conduct problems and delinquency. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice, (Vol. 7, pp. 29–149). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  81. Maccoby, E. E. (1986). Social groupings in childhood: Their relationship to prosocial and antisocial behavior in boys and girls. In D. Olweus, J. Block, & M. Radke-Yarrow (Eds.), Development of antisocial and prosocial behavior: Research, theories, and issues (pp. 263–284). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  82. Maguin, E., & Loeber, R. (1996). Academic performance and delinquency? In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice (Vol. 20, pp. 145–264). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  83. Mahoney, A., Jouriles, N. E., & Scavone, J. (1997). Marital adjustment, marital discord over childrearing, and child behavior problems: Moderating effects of child age. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26, 415–423.Google Scholar
  84. Mannuzza, S., Klein, R. G., Bonagura, N., Malloy, P., Giampino, T. L., & Addalli, D. A. (1991) Hyperactive boys almost grown up. V. Replications of psychiatric status. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 1073–1079.Google Scholar
  85. McCord, J. (1979). Some child-rearing antecedents of criminal behavior in adult men. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1477–1486.Google Scholar
  86. McDermott, J. F. (Ed.). (1998). Practice parameters. Supplement to Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(10).Google Scholar
  87. McGee, R., Feehan, M., & Williams, S. (1992). Comorbidity of anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence. In G. D. Burrows, M. Roth, & R. Noyes, (Eds.), Handbook of anxiety (Vol. 5, chap. 18). Elsevier.Google Scholar
  88. McGee, R., & Stanton, W. R. (1992). Sources of distress among New Zealand adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 999–1010.Google Scholar
  89. Mitchell, S., & Rosa, P. (1981). Boyhood behavior problems as precursors of criminality: A fifteen year follow-up study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 22, 19–33.Google Scholar
  90. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-cycle-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychology Review, 100, 674–701.Google Scholar
  91. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Girgus, J. S. (1994). The emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 424–443.Google Scholar
  92. Nottelmann, E. D., & Jensen, P. S. (1995). Comorbidity of disorders in children and adolescents. In T. H. Ollendick & R. J. Prinz (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (pp. 109–155). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  93. O'Donnell, J., Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Abbott, R. D., & Day, L. E. (1995). Preventing school failure, drug use, and delinquency among low-income children: Long-term intervention in elementary schools. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65, 87–100.Google Scholar
  94. Offord, D. R., Adler, R. J., & Boyle, M. H. (1986). Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of conduct disorder. American Journal of Social Psychiatry, 4, 272–278.Google Scholar
  95. Offord, D. R., and Bennett, K. J. (1994). Conduct Disorder: Long-term outcomes and intervention effectiveness. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 1069–1078.Google Scholar
  96. Offord, D. R., Boyle, M. H., Szatmari, P., Rae-Grant, N. I., Links, P. S., Cadman, D. T., Byles, J. A., Crawford, J. W., Munroe, H., Byrne, C., Thomas, H., & Woodward, C. A. (1987). Ontario child health study: II. Six-month prevalence of disorder and rates of service utilization. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 832–836.Google Scholar
  97. Ogle, R. S., Maier-Katkin, D., & Bernard, T. J. (1995). A theory of homicidal behavior among women. Criminology, 33, 173–193.Google Scholar
  98. Olson, S. L., & Hoza, B. (1993). Preschool developmental antecedents of conduct problems in children beginning school. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 60–67.Google Scholar
  99. Orvaschel, H. (1985). Psychiatric interviews suitable for use in research with children and adolescents. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 21, 737–744.Google Scholar
  100. Pajer, K. A. (1998). What happens to “Bad” girls? A review of the adult outcomes of antisocial adolescent girls. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 862–870.Google Scholar
  101. Paternite, C. E., Loney, J., & Roberts, M. A. (1995). External validation of oppositional defiant disorder and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 453–471.Google Scholar
  102. Patterson, G. R. (1982). A social learning approach: Vol. 3. Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.Google Scholar
  103. Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 329–335.Google Scholar
  104. Pepler, D. J. (1995). A developmental profile of risks for aggressive girls. Unpublished manuscript, York University, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  105. Petersen, A. C., Compas, B. E., Brooks-Gunn, J., Stemmler, M., Ey, E., & Grant, K. E. (1993). Depression in adolescence. American Psychologist, 48, 155–168.Google Scholar
  106. Petersen, A. C., Sarigiani, P. A., & Kennedy, R. E. (1991). Adolescent depression: Why more girls? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, 247–271.Google Scholar
  107. Prior, M., Smart, D., Sanson, A., & Oberklaid, F. (1993). Sex differences in psychological adjustment from infancy to 8 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 291–304.Google Scholar
  108. Pulkkinen, L. (1983). Predictability of criminal behavior. Psykologia, 18, 3–10.Google Scholar
  109. Raine, A., Venables, P. H., & Mednick, S. A. (1997). Low resting heart rate at age 3 years predisposes to aggression at age 11 years: Evidence from the Mauritius Child Health Project. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1457–1464.Google Scholar
  110. Raine, A., Venables, P. H., & Williams, M. (1990). Relationships between central and autonomic measures of arousal at age 15 years and criminality at age 24 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1003–1007.Google Scholar
  111. Reid, J. B., & Patterson, G. R. (1991). Early prevention and intervention with conduct problems: A social interactional model for the integration of research and practice. In G. Stoner, M. R. Shinn, & H. M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior problems (pp. 715–739). Silver Spring, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
  112. Richters, J. E., & Martinez, P. E. (1993). Violent communities, family choices, and children's chances: An algorithm for improving the odds. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 609–627.Google Scholar
  113. Rierdan, J., & Koff, E. (1993). Developmental variables in relation to depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 485–496.Google Scholar
  114. Robins, L. N. (1966). Deviant children grown up: A sociological and psychiatric study of sociopathic personality. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  115. Robins, L. N. (1986). The consequences of Conduct Disorder in girls. In D. Olweus, J. Black, & M. Radke-Yarrow (Eds.), Development of antisocial and prosocial behavior: Research, theories, and issues. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  116. Robins, L. N. (1991). Conduct disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Profession, 32, 193–212.Google Scholar
  117. Robins, L. N., & Pryzbeck, T. R. (1985). Age of onset of drug use as a factor in drug and other disorders. National Institute of Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series, 56, 178–192.Google Scholar
  118. Robins, L. N., Tripp, J., & Pryzbeck, T. R. (1991). Antisocial Personality. In L. N. Robins & D. A. Regier (Eds.), Psychiatric disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  119. Rogeness, G. A., Cepeda, C., Macedo, C. A., Fischer, C., & Harris, W. R. (1990). Differences in heart rate and blood pressure in children with Conduct Disorder, Major Depression, and Separation Anxiety. Psychiatry Research, 33, 199–206.Google Scholar
  120. Seidman, L. J., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Weber, W., Mennin, D., & Jones, J. (1997). A pilot study of neuropsychological function in girls with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 366–373.Google Scholar
  121. Serbin, L. A., Peters, P. L., McAffer, V. J., & Schwartzman, A. E. (1991). Childhood aggression and withdrawal as predictors of adolescent pregnancy, early parenthood, and environmental risk for the next generation. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 23, 318–331.Google Scholar
  122. Shaffer, D. (1988). The epidemiology of teen suicide: An examination of risk factors. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 49, 36–41.Google Scholar
  123. Silverthorn, P., & Frick, P. J. (in press). Developmental pathways to antisocial behavior: The delayed-onset pathway in girls. Development and Psychopathology.Google Scholar
  124. Sprich-Buckminster, S., Biederman, J., Milberger, S., Faraone, S. V., & Lehman, B. K. (1993). Are perinatal complications relevant to the manifestation of ADD?: Issues of comorbidity and familiality. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 1032–1037.Google Scholar
  125. Stattin, H., & Magnusson, D. (1990). Pubertal maturation in female development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  126. Szatmari, P., Boyle, M. H., & Offord, D. R. (1993). Familial aggregation of emotional and behavioral problems of childhood in the general population. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1398–1403.Google Scholar
  127. Tolan, P.H., & Thomas, P. (1995). The implications of age of onset for delinquency risk II: Longitudinal data. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 157–181.Google Scholar
  128. Tremblay, R. E., Masse, B., Perron, D., Le Blanc, M., Schwartzman, A. E., & Ledingham, J. E. (1992). Early disruptive behavior, poor school achievement, delinquent behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 64–72.Google Scholar
  129. Underwood, M. K., Kupersmidt, J. B., & Coie, J. D. (1996). Childhood peer sociometric status and aggression as predictors of adolescent childbearing. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 6, 201–223.Google Scholar
  130. Verhulst, F. C., & Vander Ende, J. (1991). Four-year follow-up of teacher-reported problem behaviours. Psychological Medicine, 21, 965–977.Google Scholar
  131. Wakschlag, L. S., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Green, S. M., & Leventhal, B. L. (1997). Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk for Conduct Disorder in their offspring. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 670–676.Google Scholar
  132. Walker, J. L., Lahey, B. B., Russo, M. F., Frick, P. J., Christ, M. A., McBurnett, K., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Green, S. (1991). Anxiety, inhibition, and conduct disorder in children: I. Relations to social impairment and sensation seeking. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 187–191.Google Scholar
  133. Webster-Stratton, C. (1996). Early-onset conduct problems: Does gender make a difference? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 540–551.Google Scholar
  134. Windle, M. (1990). A longitudinal study of antisocial behaviors in early adolescence as predictors of late adolescent substance use: Gender and ethnic group differences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 86–91.Google Scholar
  135. Windle, M. (1994). Co-existing problems and alcoholic family risk among adolescents. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 708, 157–164.Google Scholar
  136. Zahn-Waxler, C. (1993). Warriors and worriers: Gender and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 79–89.Google Scholar
  137. Zahn-Waxler, C., Cole, P. M., & Barrett, K. C. (1991). Guilt and empathy: Sex differences and implications for the development of depression. In J. Garber & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (pp. 243–272). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  138. Zahn-Waxler, C., Iannotti, R. J., Cummings, E. M., & Denham, S. (1990). Antecedents of problem behaviors in children of depressed mothers. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 271–291.Google Scholar
  139. Zoccolillo, M. (1992). Co-occurrence of Conduct Disorder and its adult outcomes with Depressive and Anxiety Disorders—A review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 547–556.Google Scholar
  140. Zoccolillo, M. (1993). Gender and the development of conduct disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 65–78.Google Scholar
  141. Zoccolillo, M., Pickles, A., Quinton, D., & Rutter, M. (1992). The outcome of Conduct Disorder: Implications for defining adult personality disorder and Conduct Disorder. Psychological Medicine, 22, 1–16.Google Scholar
  142. Zoccolillo, M., & Rogers, K. (1991). Characteristics and outcome of hospitalized adolescent girls with CD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 973–981.Google Scholar
  143. Zoccolillo, M., Tremblay, R., & Vitaro, F. (1996). DSM-III-R and DSM-III criteria for conduct disorder in preadolescent girls: Specific but insensitive. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 461–470.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kate Keenan
    • 1
  • Rolf Loeber
    • 2
  • Stephanie Green
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of ChicagoChicago
  2. 2.Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicPittsburgh

Personalised recommendations