Sex Roles

, Volume 47, Issue 9–10, pp 433–441 | Cite as

Education and Catholic Religiosity as Predictors of Hostile and Benevolent Sexism Toward Women and Men

  • Peter Glick
  • Maria Lameiras
  • Yolanda Rodriguez Castro

Abstract

The relationships of education and religiosity to hostile and benevolently sexist attitudes toward women and men, as assessed by the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996) and the Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (AMI; Glick & Fiske, 1999), was explored in a random sample of 1,003 adults (508 women, 495 men) from Galicia, Spain. For both men and women (a) level of educational attainment negatively correlated with hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes, and (b) Catholic religiosity uniquely predicted more benevolent, but not more hostile, sexist attitudes. Although correlational, these data are consistent with the notion that active participation in the Catholic Church may reinforce benevolently sexist ideologies that legitimate gender inequality, whereas education may be effective in diminishing sexist beliefs.

Catholicism education benevolent sexism hostile sexism 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. New York: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  2. Benson, P. L., & Vincent, S. (1980). Development and validation of the Sexist Attitudes Toward Women Scale (SATWS). Psychology of Women Quarterly, 5 276-291.Google Scholar
  3. Daly, M. (1968). The church and the second sex. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  4. de Miguel, A. (1997). La sociedad española 1996-1997 [Spanish Society 1996-1997]. Madrid: Editorial Complutense.Google Scholar
  5. Farley, R., Steeh, C., Krysan, M., Jackson, T., & Reeves, K. (1994). Stereotypes and segregation: Neighborhoods in the Detroit area. American Journal of Sociology, 100 750-780.Google Scholar
  6. Gallup, G. R. (1976). The Gallup poll: Public opinion 1972-1977. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.Google Scholar
  7. Glick, P., Diebold, J., Bailey-Werner, B., & Zhu, L. (1997). The two faces of Adam: Ambivalent sexism and polarized attitudes toward women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23 1323-1334.Google Scholar
  8. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70 491-512.Google Scholar
  9. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1999). The Ambivalence toward Men Inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent beliefs about men. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23 519-536.Google Scholar
  10. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (2001). Ambivalent sexism. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 33, pp. 115-188). Thousand Oaks, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Glick, P., Fiske, S. T., Mladinic, A., Saiz, J., Abrams, D., Masser, B., et al. (2000). Beyond prejudice as simple antipathy: Hostile and benevolent sexism across cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79 763-775.Google Scholar
  12. Ickes, W. (1985). Sex role influences on compatibility in relationships. In W. Ickes (Ed.), Compatible and incompatible relationships (pp. 187-208). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  13. Jensen, L. C., & Jensen, J. (1993). Family values, religiosity, and gender. Psychological Reports, 73 429-430.Google Scholar
  14. John Paul II. (1988). Apostolic letter of the Supreme Pontiff John Paul II on the dignity and vocation of women. Delivered in Rome on August 15, 1988.Google Scholar
  15. John Paul II. (1995). Letter of Pope John Paul II to women. Delivered in Rome on June 29, 1995.Google Scholar
  16. Kilianski, S. E., & Rudman, L. A. (1998). Wanting it both ways: Do women approve of benevolent sexism? Sex Roles, 39 333-352.Google Scholar
  17. Lundskow, G. N. (2000). Are promises enough? Promise Keepers' attitudes and character in intensive interviews. In D. S. Claussen (Ed.), The promise keepers: Essays on masculinity and Christianity. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.Google Scholar
  18. Pius XII. (1947). Papal directives for the woman of today. Allocution to the Congress of the International Union of Catholic Women's Leagues, Rome, Italy, September 11, 1947.Google Scholar
  19. Pratto, F., Stallworth, L. M., Sidanius, J., & Siers, B. (1997). The gender gap in occupational role attainment: A social dominance approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72 37-53.Google Scholar
  20. Sanchez, L., & Hall, C. S. (1999). Traditional values and democratic impulses: The gender division of labor in contemporary Spain. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 30 659-685.Google Scholar
  21. Schaefer, R. T. (1996). Education and prejudice: Unraveling the relationship. Sociological Quarterly, 37 1-16.Google Scholar
  22. Sidanius, J. (1993). The interface between racism and sexism. Journal of Psychology, 127 211-322.Google Scholar
  23. Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (1999). Social dominance: An inter-group theory of social hierarchy and oppression. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Sidanius, J., Pratto, F., & Bobo, L. (1994). Social dominance orientation and the political psychology of gender: A case of in-variance? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67 998-1011.Google Scholar
  25. Smith, I. (1981). Educational differentiation and curricular guidance: A review. Educational Studies, 7 87-94.Google Scholar
  26. Tavris, C., & Wade, C. (1984). The longest war (2nd ed.). San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  27. Twenge, J. M. (1997). Attitudes toward women, 1970-1995: A meta-analysis. Sex Roles, 31 35-52.Google Scholar
  28. Wilcox, C., & Jelen, T. G. (1991). The effect of employment and religion on women's feminist attitudes. International Journal for the Study of Religion, 1 161-171.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Glick
    • 1
  • Maria Lameiras
    • 2
  • Yolanda Rodriguez Castro
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLawrence UniversityApleton
  2. 2.Universidad de VigoOurense

Personalised recommendations