International Environmental Agreements

, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp 339–357 | Cite as

Governments and International Civil Society inSustainable Development: A Framework

  • Konrad Von Moltke


International civil society has emerged as a critical forcein sustainable development. This poses significant challenges tothe analysis of international relations. This paper suggests anumber of ways to think about the role of civl society actorsin international relations, focusing on market-based factors andnew institutional venues. Public/private partnerships andproduct regimes are identified as critical framwroks for theunderstanding of the prospects of achieving greater sustainability

competitiveness economic citizenship efficiency foreign direct investment goodwill international civil society international standards subsidiarity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes and References

  1. 1.
    Kaul, Inge, et al., eds., Global Public Goods.International Cooperation in the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fiorini, Ann M., ed., The Third Force.The Rise of Transnational Civil Society. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2000.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Young, Oran, The Institutional Dimensions of Environmental Change. Fit, Interplay, and Scale. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Spector, Bertram I., et al., eds., Negotiating International Regimes: Lessons Learned from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). London: Graham & Trotman, 1994.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    Konrad von Moltke, “Trade And... The Agenda of Trade Linkages. Article submitted for review. Available at Scholar
  6. 8.
    Konrad von Moltke, “FDI in Mining: Discrimination and Nondiscrimination,” Paper for the OECD Workshop on Mining and the Environment. Paris, March 2002.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    M. Sornorajah, The International Law on Foreign Investment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  8. 10.
    World Trade Organization (WTO), 1995. The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations. The Legal Texts. Geneva: WTO.Google Scholar
  9. 11.
    Mann, Howard, and Konrad von Moltke, 1999. NAFTA's Chapter 11 and the Environment. Addressing the Impacts of the Investor-State Process on the Environment (Working Paper). Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development. von Moltke, Konrad, and Howard Mann, 2001. “Misappropriation of Institutions: Some Lessons from the Environmental Dimension of the NAFTA Investor-State Dispute Settlement Process,” International Environmental Agreements, vol. 1 no. 1 (January 2001), pp. 103–123. International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD). 2001. Private Rights, Public Problems.A Guide to NAFTA's Controversial Chapter on Investor Rights. Winnipeg, MB: IISD. Also available at: trade/default.htm.Google Scholar
  10. 12.
    Documentation available at Scholar
  11. 13.
    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Bilateral Investment Treaties 1959–1999. Geneva: UNCTAD, 2000. Also available at: See also Luke Peterson, “Moving Forward by Looking Backward: The Case for Examining Existing Investment Treaties As a Prelude to Developing a New Multilateral Agreement on Investment.” Paper for a Nauytilus Institute project (publication forthcoming).Google Scholar
  12. 14.
    Available at,3380,EN-home-9-nodirec-torate-no-no—9,FF.html.Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    Available at Scholar
  14. 16.
    Vasanthakumar N. Bhat, Total Quality Environmental Management.An ISO 14000 Approach. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1998. See also Scholar
  15. 17. Scholar
  16. 18.
    See Konrad von Moltke, An International Investment Regime? Issues of Sustainability. Winnipeg, MB: International Institute for Sustainable Development, 2000, pp. 14–15.Google Scholar
  17. 19.
    See Paul Hawken, The Ecology of Commerce. A Declaration of Sustainability. New York: HarperBusiness, 1993.Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    Konrad von Moltke, et al., Global Product Chains: Northern Consumers, Southern Producers, and Sustainability. Geneva: United Nations Environment Programme, 1998.Google Scholar
  19. 21.
    Terry Barker and Jonathan Köhler, eds., Internationaal Comeptitiveness and Environmental Policies (International Studies in Environmental Policy Making). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1998.Google Scholar
  20. 22.
    Oran Young, ed., The Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes: Causal Connections and Behavioral Mechanisms. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  21. 23.
    For a brief discussion of the role of subsidiarity in sustainable development, see: International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Principles for Trade and Sustainable Development. Winnipeg, MB: IISD, 1994.Google Scholar
  22. 25.
    Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, Annex 1 and Annex 3, in: World Trade Organization, The Results of the Uruguay Round of Trade Negotiations.The Legal Texts. Geneva: WTO, 1995, pp. 156–162.Google Scholar
  23. 26.
    Available at,3380,EN-home-9-nodirec-torate-no-no—9,FF.html.Google Scholar
  24. 27.
    Wrisberg, Nicoline, et al., eds., Analytical Tools for Environmental Design and Management in a Systems Perspective (Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science, vol.10). Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2002.Google Scholar
  25. 28.
    John Ganzi, et al., Leverage for the Environment: A Guide to the Private Financial Services Industry. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 1998.Google Scholar
  26. 29. Scholar
  27. 30.
    See Bunesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Green Finance.Environmental Management in Banks, Savings Banks and Insurance Companies. Berlin: German Ministry for Environmental Protection, Conservation and Nuclear Reactor Safety, 2001, p. 29.Google Scholar
  28. 31. Scholar
  29. 33.
    Review of European Community & International Environmental Law (RECIEL), Focus on: Non Government Organizations and International Environmental Protection. RECIEL vol. 10 no. 2 (2001).Google Scholar
  30. 34.
    Information on the U.S. and other investories at: Scholar
  31. 35.
    Konrad von Moltke, et al., Global Product Chains: Northern Consumers, Southern Producers, and Sustainability. Geneva: United Nations Environment Programme, 1998.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konrad Von Moltke
    • 1
  1. 1.Dartmouth College, Environmental Studies ProgramNew HampshireUSA

Personalised recommendations