Reading and Writing

, Volume 15, Issue 7–8, pp 789–809 | Cite as

Explaining the Predictive Accuracy of Teacher Judgments of Their Students' Reading Achievement: The Role of Gender, Classroom Behavior, and Emergent Literacy Skills in a Longitudinal Sample of Children Exposed to Poverty

  • Steven A. Hecht
  • Daryl B. Greenfield


The factors that explain why teachers are ableto accurately predict their students' futurereading ability were examined in a longitudinalstudy from first- to third-grade in childrenexposed to poverty (N = 170). Teacher ratingswere similarly based on both their students'emergent literacy skills and classroombehavior. Meanwhile, the influences ofclassroom behavior on later variability inreading skills were much less than, and almostcompletely redundant with, prior emergentliteracy. Virtually all of the shared variancebetween teacher ratings and later readingskills was explained by prior levels ofemergent literacy. Implications of the resultsand future research were discussed.

Classroom behavior Emergent literacy Phonemic awareness Phonological awareness Reading Teacher ratings 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bennett, R.E., Gottesman, R.L., Rock, D.A. & Cerullo, F. (1993). Influence of behavior perceptions and gender on teachers' judgments of students' academic skill, Journal of Educational Psychology 85: 347–356.Google Scholar
  3. Bruce, D. (1964). An analysis of word sounds by young children, British Journal of Educational Psychology 34: 158–170.Google Scholar
  4. Chall, J.S., Jacobs, V.A. & Baldwin, L.E. (1990). The reading crisis: Why poor children fall behind. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Clay, M. (1979). Stones-the concepts about print test. Auckland, New Zealand: Heinemann Publishing.Google Scholar
  6. Clay, M. (1993). An pbservational survey of early literacy achievement. Auckland, New Zealand: Heinemann Publishing.Google Scholar
  7. Coladarci, T.C. (1986). Accuracy of teacher judgments of student responses to standardized test items, Journal of Educational Psychology 78: 141–146.Google Scholar
  8. Crone, D.A. & Whitehurst, G.J. (1999). Age and schooling effects on emergent literacy and early reading skills, Journal of Educational Psychology 91: 604–614.Google Scholar
  9. Dunn, L.M. & Dunn, L.M. (1981). Peabody picture vocabulary test-revised. Circle Pines, Minnesota: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  10. Fletcher, J.M. & Satz, P. (1984). Test-based versus teacher-based predictions of academic achievement: A three-year longitudinal follow-up, Journal of Pediatric Psychology 9: 193–203.Google Scholar
  11. Gresham, F.M. & Elliott, S.N. (1990). Social skills rating system. Circle Pines, Minnesota: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  12. Hecht, S.A. & Close, L. (2002). Emergent literacy skills and training time uniquely predict variability in responses to phonemic awareness training in disadvantaged kindergartners, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 82: 93–115.Google Scholar
  13. Hecht, S.A. & Greenfield, D. (2001). Comparing the predictive validity of first-grade teacher ratings and reading-related tests on third grade levels of reading skills in young children exposed to poverty, School Psychology Review 30: 50–69.Google Scholar
  14. Hecht, S.A., Burgess, S.R., Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R.K. & Rashotte, C.A. (2001). Explaining social class differences in growth of reading skills from beginning kindergarten through fourth-grade: The role of phonemic awareness, rate of access, and print knowledge, Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 12: 99–128.Google Scholar
  15. Hoge, R.D. & Caladarci, T. (1989). Teacher-based judgments of academic achievement: A review of literature, Review of Educational Research 59: 297–313.Google Scholar
  16. Kagan, S. & Neuman, M. (1998). Lessons from three decades of transition research, The Elementary School Journal 98: 365–379.Google Scholar
  17. McKinney, J.D. & Speece, D.L. (1986). Academic consequences and longitudinal stability of behavioral subtypes of learning disabled children, Journal of Educational Psychology 78: 365–372.Google Scholar
  18. McKinney, J.D., Mason, J., Perkerson, K. & Clifford, M. (1975). Relationship between classroom behavior and academic achievement, Journal of Educational Psychology 67: 198–203.Google Scholar
  19. Reynolds, A.J. (1989). A structural model of first-grade outcomes for an urban, low SES, minority population, Journal of Educational Psychology 4: 594–603.Google Scholar
  20. Roswell & Chall, J.S. (1959). Auditory blending test. New York: Essay Press.Google Scholar
  21. Scarborough, H.S. (1998). Early identification of children at risk for reading disabilities. In: B.K. Shapiro, P.J. Accardo & A.J. Capute (eds.), Specific reading disability: A view of the spectrum (pp. 75–119). Timonium, Maryland: York Press.Google Scholar
  22. Snow, C.E., Barnes, W.S., Chandler, J., Goodman, I.F. & Hemphill, L. (1991). Unfulfilled expectations: Home and school influences on literacy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Stanovich, K.E., Cunningham, A.E. & Feeman, D.J. (1984). Intelligence, cognitive skills, and early reading progress, Reading Research Quarterly 19: 278–303.Google Scholar
  24. Stevenson, H.W., Parker, T., Wilkinson, A., Hegion, A. & Fish, E. (1976). Predictive value of teachers' ratings of young children, Journal of Educational Psychology 68: 507–517.Google Scholar
  25. Wagner, R.K. & Torgesen, J.K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin 101: 192–212.Google Scholar
  26. Wagner, R.K., Torgesen, J.K., Rashotte, C.A., Hecht, S.A., Barker, T.A., Burgess, S.R., Donahue, J. & Garon, T. (1997). Changing relations between phonological processing abilities and word-level reading as children develop from beginning to skilled readers: A 5-year longitudinal study, Developmental Psychology 33: 468–479.Google Scholar
  27. Wentzel, K.R. (1991). Social competence at school: Relation between social responsibility and academic achievement. Review of Educational Research 61: 1–24.Google Scholar
  28. Woodcock, R.W. & Johnson, M.B. (1989). Woodcock-Johnson test of achievement standard battery, form B. Allen, Texas: DLM Teaching Resources.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven A. Hecht
    • 1
  • Daryl B. Greenfield
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyDavieUSA
  2. 2.University of MiamiCoral GablesUSA

Personalised recommendations