Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 455–467 | Cite as

The Stability of Parenting: A Longitudinal Analysis of Inner-City African-American Mothers

  • Rex Forehand
  • Deborah J. Jones


We examined the stability of authoritative parenting behaviors in a sample of 124 low-income, inner-city, African-American families. Parental monitoring and warmth were assessed longitudinally across four years. Test-retest correlation coefficients indicated the relative stability of both parental monitoring and warmth over the four-year assessment period was high, particularly for girls. In contrast, analyses of variance did not provide evidence for absolute stability as both parental monitoring and warmth declined across assessments, regardless of gender of child. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the historical context of monitoring is important to consider as earlier parental monitoring behaviors accounted for unique variance in later parental monitoring behaviors, beyond that accounted for by the most recent assessment. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

stability parenting inner city African-American adolescents 


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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Behavioral ResearchUniversity of GeorgiaAthens
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyWest Virginia UniversityMorgantown

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