Size-structured Interactions between Native and Introduced Species: Can Intraguild Predation Facilitate Invasion by Stream Salmonids?
- 181 Downloads
Dynamics of biological invasions may be complicated in size-structured animal populations. Differences in timing of life history events such as juvenile emergence create complex interaction webs where different life stages of native and non-native species act as predators, competitors, and prey. Stream salmonids are an ideal group for studying these phenomena because they display competition and predation in size-structured populations and have been introduced worldwide. For example, introduced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are invading streams of Hokkaido Island, Japan and have caused declines in native masu salmon (O. masou) populations. However, age-0 rainbow trout emerge later than age-0 masu salmon and are smaller, which raises the question of why they are able to recruit and therefore invade in the face of a larger competitor. We conducted experiments in laboratory stream channels to test effects of increasing density of age-0 and age-1 rainbow trout on age-0 masu salmon. Age-1 rainbow trout dominated age-0 masu salmon by aggressive interference, relegating them to less favorable foraging positions downstream and reducing their foraging frequency and growth. The age-1 trout also reduced masu salmon survival by predation of about 40% of the individuals overall. In contrast, age-0 rainbow trout had little effect on age-0 masu salmon. Instead, the salmon dominated the age-0 trout by interference competition and reduced their survival by predation of 60% of the individuals. In each case, biotic interactions by the larger species on the smaller were strongly negative due to a combination of interspecific competition and intraguild predation. We predict that together these produce a positive indirect effect in the interaction chain that will allow the recruitment of rainbow trout in the face of competition and predation from age-0 masu salmon, and thereby facilitate their invasion in northern Japan.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.