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Clinical Predictors of Successful Cephalic Vein Access for Implantation of Endocardial Leads

  • Bradley P. KnightEmail author
  • Kristen Curlett
  • Hakan Oral
  • Frank Pelosi
  • Fred Morady
  • S. Adam Strickberger
Article

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are any patient characteristics that predict successful use of the cephalic vein for endocardial lead implantation.

Methods: One-hundred fifty consecutive patients who underwent implantation of one or more endocardial pacemaker (N = 63) or defibrillator (N = 87) leads using a cephalic vein approach were included in this prospective study. The mean age of the patients was 63 ± 14 years, and 115 (77%) were men. Ninty-one patients (61%) had coronary artery disease, 77 patients (51%) had hypertension, and 42 patients (28%) had diabetes. The mean ejection fraction was 0.34 ± 0.17.

Results: At least one lead was successfully implanted using a cephalic vein approach in 96 patients (64%). The most common reason for failure of the cephalic vein approach was a small cephalic vein, found in 25 patients (17%). Independent predictors of successful cephalic vein use were diabetes (p < 0.001), ejection fraction ≤0.40 (p < 0.05), and male gender (p < 0.05). At least one endocardial lead was implanted in 19 of the 24 (79%) men who had an ejection fraction ≤0.40 and diabetes, compared to 4 of the 11 (36%) women who had an ejection fraction >0.40 and did not have diabetes. The only independent predictor of successful cephalic vein implantation among nondiabetics was an ejection fraction ≤0.40 (p < 0.01). Body size was not an independent predictor of successful cephalic vein use.

Conclusion: Baseline patient characteristics influence the likelihood of successful endocardial lead implantation using a cephalic vein approach. Diabetes, ventricular dysfunction, male gender and are associated with an increased likelihood of a successful implant using the cephalic vein. Smaller leads and and better techniques are needed to improve the success rate of cephalic vein implantion in all patients.

cephalic vein pacemaker implantation defibrillator endocardial leads defibrillation cardiac pacing 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bradley P. Knight
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kristen Curlett
    • 1
  • Hakan Oral
    • 1
  • Frank Pelosi
    • 1
  • Fred Morady
    • 1
  • S. Adam Strickberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Michigan Medical CenterAnn Arbor

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