European Journal of Plant Pathology

, Volume 108, Issue 7, pp 597–609

Toxigenic Fusarium Species and Mycotoxins Associated with Maize Ear Rot in Europe

  • A. Logrieco
  • G. Mulè
  • A. Moretti
  • A. Bottalico


Several Fusarium species occurring worldwide on maize as causal agents of ear rot, are capable of producing mycotoxins in infected kernels, some of which have a notable impact on human and animal health. The main groups of Fusarium toxins commonly found are: trichothecenes, zearalenones, fumonisins, and moniliformin. In addition, beauvericin and fusaproliferin have been found in Fusarium-infected maize ears. Zearalenone and deoxynivalenol are commonly found in maize red ear rot, which is essentially caused by species of the Discolour section, particularly F. graminearum. Moreover, nivalenol and fusarenone-X were often found associated with the occasional occurrence of F. cerealis, and diacetoxyscirpenol and T-2 toxin with the occurrence of F. poae and F. sporotrichioides, respectively. In addition, the occurrence of F. avenaceum and F. subglutinans usually led to the accumulation of moniliformin. In maize pink ear rot, which is mainly caused by F. verticillioides, there is increasing evidence of the wide occurrence of fumonisin B1. This carcinogenic toxin is usually found in association with moniliformin, beauvericin, and fusaproliferin, both in central Europe due to the co-occurrence of F. subglutinans, and in southern Europe where the spread of F. verticillioides is reinforced by the widespread presence of F. proliferatum capable of producing fumonisin B1, moniliformin, beauvericin, and fusaproliferin.

maize pink ear rot Fusarium mycotoxins Fusarium graminearum zearalenone trichothecenes deoxynivalenol Fusarium verticillioides fumonisins Fusarium proliferatum fusaproliferin moniliformin 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbas HK, Shier WT, Seo JA, Lee YW and Musser SM (1998) Phytotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the fumonisin C and P series of mycotoxins from Fusarium spp. fungi. Toxicon 36: 2033–2037Google Scholar
  2. Adler A, Law H, Edinger W, Brodacz W, Kiemdler E, Oberforster Mand Hinterholzer J (2001) Fusaria in Austrian cereals - shifting of species and toxin contamination. In: Abstracts of International Symposium on “Bioactive fungal metabolites - Impact and exploitation, Swansea, Wales, 22-27 April 2001, p. 40Google Scholar
  3. Arino A and Bullerman LB (1994) Fungal colonization of corn grown in Nebraska in relation to year, genotype and growing conditions. Journal of Food Protection 57: 1084–1087Google Scholar
  4. Beardall GM and Miller JD (1994) Diseases in humans with mycotoxins as possible causes. In: Miller JD and Trenholm HL (eds) Mycotoxins in Grain. Compounds Other Than Aflatoxin (pp 487–539) Eagan press, St. Paul, Minnesota, USAGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhat RV, Beedu SR, Ramakrishna Y and Munshi KL (1989) Outbreak of trichothecene mycotoxicosis associated with consumption of mould-damaged wheat in Kashmir Valley, India. Lancet i: 35–37Google Scholar
  6. Bočarov-Stančić A, Škrinjar M, Mašic Z, Pavcov S and Gološin B (1997) Natural occurrence of Fusarium spp. and fusariotoxins in Yugoslav corn kernels. Cereal Research Communications 25: 581–582Google Scholar
  7. Bottalico A (1979) On the occurrence of zearalenone in Italy. Mycopathologia 67: 119–121Google Scholar
  8. Bottalico A (1997) Toxigenic Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in pre-harvest cereals in Europe. Bulletin of the Institute for Comprehensive Agricultural Sciences Kinki University, Nara, Japan 5: 47–62Google Scholar
  9. Bottalico A (1998) Fusarium diseases of cereals: Species complex and related mycotoxin profiles in Europe. Journal of Plant Pathology 80: 85–103Google Scholar
  10. Bottalico A, Lerario P and Visconti A (1983) Mycotoxins occurring in Fusarium-infected maize ears in the field, in some European countries. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Mycotoxins (pp 375–382) Publication of the Science Department NIDOC, CairoGoogle Scholar
  11. Bottalico A and Logrieco A (1988) Osservazioni sulla fusariosi del Mais in Basilicata. II. Influenza di alcuni fattori colturali. Informatore fitopatologico 38: 55–58Google Scholar
  12. Bottalico A, Visconti A, Logrieco A, Solfrizzo M and Mirocha CJ (1985) Occurrence of zearalenols (diastereomeric mixture) in corn stalk rot and their production by associated Fusarium species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 49: 547–551Google Scholar
  13. Bottalico A, Logrieco A and Ricci V (1986) Osservazioni sulla fusariosi del Mais in Basilicata. I. Incidenza della malattia e specie di Fusarium coinvolte. Informatore fitopatologico 36: 27–30Google Scholar
  14. Bottalico A, Logrieco A and Visconti A (1989) Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in infected corn in Italy. Mycopathologia 107: 85–92Google Scholar
  15. Bottalico A, Logrieco A and Visconti A (1990) Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium crookwellense Burgess, Nelson and Toussoun. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 29: 24–127Google Scholar
  16. Bottalico A, Logrieco A, Ritieni A, Moretti A, Randazzo G and Corda P (1995) Beauvericin and fumonisin B1 in preharvest Fusarium moniliforme maize ear rot in Sardinia. Food Additives and Contaminants 12: 599–607Google Scholar
  17. Bullermann LB (1996) Occurrence of Fusarium and fumonisins on food grains and in foods. In: Jackson LS, De Vries JV and Bullerman LB (eds) Fumonisins in Food (pp 27–38) Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Caramelli M, Dondo A, Cantini Cortellazzi G, Visconti A, Minervini F, Doko MB and Guarda F (1993) Equine leukoencephalomalacia from fumonisin: First case in Italy. Ippologia 4: 49–56Google Scholar
  19. Charmley LL, Trenholm HL, Prelusky DA and Rosenberg A (1995) Economic losses and decontamination. Natural Toxins 3: 199–203Google Scholar
  20. Chelkowski J (1989) Mycotoxins associated with corn cob fusariosis. In: Chelkowki J (ed.) Fusarium - Mycotoxins, Taxonomy and Pathogenicity (pp 53–62) Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  21. Chelkowski J, Kwasna H, Zajkowki P,Visconti A and Bottalico A (1987) Fusarium sporotrichioides Sherb. and trichothecenes associated with Fusarium-ear rot of corn before harvest. Mycotoxin Research 3: 111–114Google Scholar
  22. Chelkowski J, Zawadzki M, Zajkowki P, Logrieco A and Bottalico A (1990) Moniliformin production by Fusarium species. Mycotoxin Research 6: 41–45Google Scholar
  23. Chelkowski J, Lew H and Pettersson H (1994a) Fusarium poae (Peck) Wollenw. - Occurrence in maize ears, nivalenol production and mycotoxin accumulation in cobs. Mycotoxin Research 10: 116–120Google Scholar
  24. Chelkowski J, Pronczuk M, Visconti A, Doko MB (1994b) Fumonisin B1 and B2 accumulation in maize kernels inoculated under field conditions with Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon and in naturally infected cobs in Poland. Genetica Polonica, 35B: 333–338Google Scholar
  25. Ciudin E and Bazgan O (1991) Chromatographical and biological tests of some samples of maize grains with F. graminearum and F. culmorum. Cercetâri Agronomice ín Moldova 24: 109–112Google Scholar
  26. Doko MB and Visconti A (1993) Fumonisin contamination of maize and maize-based foods in Italy. In: Scudamore KA (ed.) Occurrence and Significance of Mycotoxins (pp 49–55) Central Science Laboratory, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  27. Doko MB, Rapior S, Visconti A and Schjoth JE (1995) Incidence and levels of fumonisin contamination in maize genotypes grown in Europe and Africa. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43: 429–434Google Scholar
  28. Doko MB and Visconti A (1994) Occurrence of fumonisin B1 and B2 in corn and corn-based human foodstuffs in Italy. Food Additives and Contaminants 11: 433–439Google Scholar
  29. Dragoni I, Piantanida L, Tirilly Y, Visconti A and Pascale M (1996) Occurrence of fumonisins in corn feedstuffs intended for pig consumption in Bretain (France). In: Abstract Book of IX International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins, Rome, May 27-31, 1996, p. 39Google Scholar
  30. Ehling G, Cockburn A, Snowdon P and Buschhaus H (1997) The significance of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) for human and animal health. Cereal Research Communications 25: 443–447Google Scholar
  31. Ellend N, Binder J, Krska R and Horvath EM (1997) Contamination of Austrian corn with Fusarium toxins in autumn 1996. Cereal Research Communications 25: 359–360Google Scholar
  32. Eriksen GS and Alexander J (1998) Fusarium Toxins in Cereals - a Risk Assessment. TemaNord 1998:502. Nordic Council of Ministers. Ekspressen Tryk and Kopicenter, Copenaghen, Denmark, 146 ppGoogle Scholar
  33. Franceschi S, Bidoli E, Baron AE and LaVecchia C (1990) Maize and the risk of cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx and oesophagus in North-Eastern Italy. Journal of National Cancer Institute 82: 1407–1411Google Scholar
  34. Gelderblom WCA, Snyman SD, Abel S, Lebepe-Mazur S, Smuts CM, Van der Westhuizen L, Marasas WFO, Victor TC, Knasmuller S and Huber W (1996) Hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity of the fumonisins in rats. A review regarding mechanistic implications for establishing risk in humans. In: Jackson LS, De Vries JW and Bullerman LB (eds) Fumonisins in Food (pp 279–296) Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Golinski P, Vesonder RF, Latus-Zietkiewicz D and Perkowski J (1988) Formation of fusarenone X, nivalenol, zearalenone, β-trans-zearalenol, β-trans-zearalenol, and fusarin C by Fusarium crookwellense. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 54: 2147–2148Google Scholar
  36. Grabarkiewicz-Szczesna J, Foremska E and Golinski P (1996) Distribution of trichothecene mycotoxins in maize ears infected with F. graminearum and F. crookwellense. Mycotoxin Research 12: 45–50Google Scholar
  37. Gupta S, Krasnoff SB, Underwood NL, Renwick JAA and Roberts DW (1991) Isolation of beauvericin as an insect toxin from Fusarium semitectum and Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans. Mycopathologia 115: 185–189Google Scholar
  38. Harrison LR, Colvin BM, Greene JT, Newman LE and Cole JR (1990) Pulmonary edema and hydrotorax in swine produced by fumonisin B1, a toxic metabolite of Fusarium moniliforme. Journal Veterinary Diagnosis Investigations 2: 217–221Google Scholar
  39. Harvey RB, Kubena RF, Rottinghaus GE, Turk JR and Buckley SA (1997) Effects of fumonisin and moniliformin from culture materials to growing swine. Cereal Research Communications 25: 415–417Google Scholar
  40. Hopmans EC and Murphy PA (1995) Fumonisins: Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species. In: Bidlack WR and Omaye ST (eds) Natural Protectants Against Natural Toxicants. Vol. I. Natural Protectants and Natural Toxicants in Food (pp 61–78) Technomic Pub. Co. Inc., Lancaster - BaselGoogle Scholar
  41. IARC (1993) IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic risks to Humans. Vol. 56. Some Naturally Occurring Substances: Food Items and Constituents, Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Mycotoxins. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, 397–444; 445-466; 467-488Google Scholar
  42. Javed T, Bennett GA, Richard JL, Dombrink-Kurtzman MA, Coté LM and Buck WB (1993): Mortality in broiler chicks on feed amended with Fusarium proliferatum culture material or with purified fumonisin B1, and moniliformin. Mycopathologia 123: 171–184Google Scholar
  43. Jurjević Z, Cvjetković B, Jurjević and Ceović V (1997) Occurrence of Fusarium spp. on corn in the region of endemic nephropathy in Croatia. Cereal Research Communications 25: 455–456Google Scholar
  44. Jurjević Z, Solfrizzo M, Cvjetković B, Avantaggiato G and Visconti A (1999) Ochratoxin A and fumonisins (B1 and B2) in maize from Balkan nephropathy endemic and non endemic areas of Croatia. Mycotoxin Research 15: 67–80Google Scholar
  45. Kellerman TS, Marasas WFO, Thiel PG, Gelderblom WGA, Cawood M and Coetzer JAW, (1990) Leukoencephalomalacia in two horses induced by oral dosing of fumonisin B1. Onderstepport Journal of Veterinary Research 2: 269–275Google Scholar
  46. Kostechi M, Szczesna J, Chelkowski J and Wisniewska H (1995) Beauvericin and moniliformin production by Polish isolates of Fusarium subglutinans and natural co-occurrence of both mycotoxins in cereal grain samples. Microbiologie, Aliments, Nutrition 13: 67–70Google Scholar
  47. Kostechi M, Grabarkiewicz-Szczesna J and Golinski P (1997) Simultaneous analysis of beauvericin and moniliformin in fungal cultures and in cereal grain samples. Mycotoxin Research 13: 17–22Google Scholar
  48. Krska R, Lemmens M, Schuhmacher R, Grasserbauer M, Pronczuk M, Wisniewska H and Chelkowski J (1996) Accumulation of the mycotoxin beauvericin in kernels of corn hybrids inoculated with Fusarium subglutinans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44: 3665–3667Google Scholar
  49. Krska R, Schuhmacher R, Grasserbauer M, Lemmens M, Lemmens-Gruber R, Adler A and Lew H (1997) Effects of beauvericin to mammalian tissue and its production by Austrian isolates of Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium subglutinans. Mycotoxin Research, 13: 11–16Google Scholar
  50. Krüger W, (1989) Maize diseases caused by Fusaria: Involved species and mycotoxins. In: Chelkowki J (ed.) Fusarium - Mycotoxins, Taxonomy and Pathogenicity (pp 297–317) Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  51. Kuiper-Goodman T, Scott PM and Watanabe H (1987) Risk assessment of the mycotoxin zearalenone. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 7: 253–259Google Scholar
  52. Le Bars P and Le Bars J (1995) Ecotoxinogenesis of Fusarium moniliforme: Appearance of risks of fumonisins. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 16: 59–64Google Scholar
  53. Ledoux DR, Bermudez AJ, and Rottinghaus GE (1995) Effects of feeding Fusarium fujikuroi culture material, containing known levels of moniliformin, in young broiler chicks. Poultry Science 74: 297–305Google Scholar
  54. Leslie JF (1995) Gibberella fujikuroi: Available populations and variable traits. Canadian Journal of Botany 73(Suppl 1): S282–S291Google Scholar
  55. Lević J, Tamburić-Ilinčić L and Petrovič T (1997) Maize kernel infection by Fusaria in the period 1994-1996. Cereal Research Communications, 25: 773–775Google Scholar
  56. Lew H, Adler A and Edinger W (1991) Moniliformin and the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Mycotoxin Research 7A: 71–76Google Scholar
  57. Lew H, Chelkowski J, Pronczuk P and Edinger W (1996) Occurrence of the mycotoxin moniliformin in maize (Zea mays L.) ears infected by Fusarium subglutinans. Food Additives and Contaminants 13: 321–324Google Scholar
  58. Lew H, Adler A, Edinger W (1997) Dynamics of the Fusarium toxin distribution in maize plants affected by stalk rot. Cereal Research Communications 25: 467–470Google Scholar
  59. Logrieco A (2000) Advances on natural occurrence and production of beauvericin by Fusarium species. In: Abstracts of 6th European Fusarium Seminar (pp 42–43) 11-16 September, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  60. Logrieco A, Altomare C, Mulè G and A Bottalico (1992) Alcuni dati sulla presenza e patogenicití di chemiotipi di Fusarium graminearum in Europa. Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche 2, 287–294Google Scholar
  61. Logrieco A, Moretti A, Ritieni A, Chelkowski J, Altomare A, Bottalico A and Randazzo G (1993) Natural occurrence of beauvericin in pre-harvest Fusarium subglutinans infected corn ears in Poland. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 41: 2149–2152Google Scholar
  62. Logrieco A, Moretti A, Ritieni A, Bottalico A and Corda P (1995) Occurrence and toxigenicity of Fusarium proliferatum from pre-harvest maize ear rot, and associated mycotoxins, in Italy. Plant Disease 79: 727–731Google Scholar
  63. Logrieco A, Moretti A, Fornelli F, Fogliano V, Ritieni A, Caiaffa MF, Randazzo G, Bottalico A and Macchia L (1996) Fusaproliferin production by Fusarium subglutinans and its toxicity to Artemia salina, SF-9 insect cells, and IARC/LCL 171 human B lymphocytes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62: 3378–3384Google Scholar
  64. Macchia L, Di Paola R, Fornelli F, Nenna S, Moretti A, Napolitano R, Logrieco A, Caiaffa MF, Tursi A and Bottalico A (1995) Cytotoxicity of beauvericin to mammalian cells. In: Abstracts of International Seminar on ‘Fusarium: Mycotoxins, Taxonomy and Pathogenicity’ May 9-13 (pp 72–73) Martina FrancaGoogle Scholar
  65. Marasas WFO (1995) Fumonisins: Their implications for human and animal health. Natural Toxins 3: 193–198Google Scholar
  66. Marasas WFO, Thiel PG, Rabie CJ, Nelson PE and Toussoun TA (1986) Moniliformin production in Fusarium section Liseola. Mycologia 78: 242–247Google Scholar
  67. Milevoj L (1997) Electrophoretic study of proteins in the fungus Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans. Cereal Research Communications 25: 603–606Google Scholar
  68. Moretti A, Logrieco A, Bottalico A, Ritieni A and Randazzo G (1994) Production of beauvericin by Fusarium proliferatum from maize in Italy. Mycotoxin Research 10: 73–78Google Scholar
  69. Moretti A, Logrieco A, Bottalico A, Ritieni A, Randazzo G and Corda P (1995) Beauvericin production by Fusarium subglutinans from different maize geographical areas. Mycological Research 99: 282–286Google Scholar
  70. Moretti A, Logrieco A, Bottalico A, Ritieni A, Fogliano V and Randazzo G (1997) Diversity in beauvericin and fusaproliferin production by different populations of Gibberella fujikuroi (Fusarium section Liseola). Sydowia, 48: 44–56Google Scholar
  71. Munkvold GP, McGee DC and Carlton WM (1997) Importance of different pathways for maize kernek infection by Fusarium moniliforme. Phytopathology 87: 209–217Google Scholar
  72. Musser SM, Gay ML, Mazzola EP and Plattner RD (1996) Identification of a new series of fumonisins containing 3-hydroxypyridine. Journal of Natural Products 59: 970–972Google Scholar
  73. Nagy E and Bâgiu L (2000) Aggressiveness of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium moniliforme in maize. In: Abstracts of the 6th European Fusarium Seminar (pp 80–81) 11-16 September, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  74. Nedelnik J (2000) Spectrum of Fusarium species and contamination with mycotoxins of corn in the Czech Republic. In: Abstracts of the 6th European Fusarium Seminar (pp 111–112) 11-16 September, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  75. Nelson PE, Toussoun TA and Marasas WFO (1983) Fusarium Species - An Illustrated Manual for Identification, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania, USAGoogle Scholar
  76. Nelson PE, Plattner RD, Shackelford DD and Desjardins AE (1992) Fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium species other than F. moniliforme in section Liseola and by some related species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 58: 984–989Google Scholar
  77. Oldenburg E (1993) Occurrence of zearalenone in maize. Mycotoxin Research 9: 72–78Google Scholar
  78. Ostrý V and J Ruprich (1997) Fumonisiny, mykotoxiny produkované druhy rodu Fusarium. Mykologické Listy, 60: 11–18 (Reported by Review of Plant Pathology, 1997, 76:1147. Abstract No. 8853)Google Scholar
  79. Osweiler G (1995) Fumonisins and pulmonary edema in swine. In: Bidlack WR and Omaye ST (eds) Natural Protectants against Natural Toxicants. Vol. I, Natural Protectants and Natural Toxicants in Food (pp 79–87) Technomic Publishing Corporation, Lancaster - BaselGoogle Scholar
  80. Pascale M, Doko MB and Visconti A (1995) Determination of fumonisins in polenta by high performance liquid chromatography. In: Proceedings of the 2nd National Congress on Food Chemistry, 24-27 May (pp 1067–1071) Giardini Naxos, MessinaGoogle Scholar
  81. Patel S, Hazel CM, Winterton AGM and Gleadle AE (1997) Surveillance of fumonisins in UK maize-based foods and other cereals. Food Additives and Contaminants 14: 187–191Google Scholar
  82. Perkowski J, Chelkowski J, Plattner RD and Golinski P (1991) Cumulation of mycotoxins in maize cobs infected with Fusarium graminearum. Mycotoxin Research 7: 115–120Google Scholar
  83. Pestka J, Azcona-Olivera JI, Plattner RD, Minervini F, Doko MB and Visconti A (1994) A comparative assessment of fumonisin in grain-based foods by ELISA, GC-MS and HPLC. Journal of Food Protection 57: 169–172Google Scholar
  84. Piecková E and Jesenká Z (1997) Fusarium moniliforme and F. subglutinans in maize-based foodstuffs in the Slovak Republic. Cereal Research Communications 25: 609–610Google Scholar
  85. Pietri A, Bertuzzi T and Piva G (1995) Fumonisin contamination of maize grown in Italy. In: Abstracts of International Seminar on ‘Fusarium: Mycotoxins, Taxonomy and Pathogenicity’, May 9-13 (pp 18–19) Martina FrancaGoogle Scholar
  86. Pittet A, Parisod V and Schellenberg M (1992) Occurrence of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn-based products from the Swiss market. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 40: 1352–1354Google Scholar
  87. Plattner RD and Nelson PE (1994) Production of beauvericin by a strain of Fusarium proliferatum isolated from corn fodder for swine. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60: 3894–3896Google Scholar
  88. Ramakrishnan NY and Wu WD (1994) Toxicity of corn culture material of Fusarium proliferatum M-7176 and nutritional intervention in chicks. Poultry Science 73: 617–626Google Scholar
  89. Rapior S, Miller JD, Savard ME and ApSimon JW (1993) Fumonisin and fusarin production in vitro by European strains of Fusarium moniliforme. Microbiologie, Aliments, Nutrition 11: 327–333Google Scholar
  90. Rheeder JP, WFO Marasas, PG Thiel, Sydenham EW, Shephard GS and van Schalkwyk DJ (1992) Fusarium moniliforme and fumonisins in corn in relation to human oesophageal cancer in Transkei. Phytopathology 82: 353–357Google Scholar
  91. Ritieni A., Fogliano V, Randazzo G, Scarallo A, Logrieco A, Moretti A, Bottalico A and Mannina L (1995) Isolation and characterization of fusaproliferin, a new toxic metabolite from Fusarium proliferatum. Natural Toxins 3: 17–20Google Scholar
  92. Ritieni A, Moretti A, Logrieco A, Bottalico A, Randazzo G, Monti MS, Ferracane R and Fogliano V (1997a) Occurrence of fusaproliferin, fumonisin B1, and beauvericin in maize from Italy. Journal Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45: 4011–4016Google Scholar
  93. Ritieni A, Monti MS, Randazzo G, Logrieco A, Moretti A, Peluso G, Ferracane R and Fogliano V (1997b) Teratogenic effects of fusaproliferin on chicken embryos. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45: 3039–3043Google Scholar
  94. Rizzo A, Atroshi F, Hirvi T and Saloniemi H (1992) The hemolytic activity of deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin. Natural Toxins 1: 106–110Google Scholar
  95. Ross PF, Nelson PE, Richard JL, Osweiler GD, Rice LG, Plattner RD and Wilson TM (1990) Production of fumonisins by Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum associated with equine leukoencephalomalacia and a pulmonary edema syndrome in swine. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 56: 3225–3226Google Scholar
  96. Rotter BA and Prelusky DB (1996) Toxicology of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 48: 1–34Google Scholar
  97. Sanchis V, Abadias M, Oncins L, Sala N, Vinas I and Canela R (1994) Occurrence of fumonisins B1 and B2 in corn-based products from the Spanish market. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60: 2147–2148Google Scholar
  98. Sanchis V, Abadias M, Oncins L, Sala N, Viñas I and Canela R (1995) Fumonisins B1 and B2 and toxigenic Fusarium strains in feeds from the Spanish market. International Journal of Food Microbiology 27: 37–44Google Scholar
  99. Schütt F, Nirenberg HI and Deml G (1998) Moniliformin production in the genus Fusarium. Mycotoxin Research 14: 35–40Google Scholar
  100. Sharman M, Gilbert J and Chelkowski J (1991) A survey on the occurrence of moniliformin in cereal samples from sources worldwide. Food Additives and Contaminants 8: 459–466Google Scholar
  101. Shephard GS, Thiel PG, S Stockenström and Sydenham EW (1996) Worldwide survey of fumonisin contamination of corn and corn-based products. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International 79: 671–687Google Scholar
  102. Shurtleff MC (1980) Compendium of Corn Diseases. The American Phytopathological Society, 128 ppGoogle Scholar
  103. Srobárová A (1997) Occurrence of Fusarium spp. from Slovakia maize kernels. Cereal Research Communications 25: 617–618Google Scholar
  104. Srobárová A., Logrieco A, Ritieni A, Ferracane A, Moretti A and Nadubinská M (2000) Contamination of the maize ear by toxigenic Fusarium spp. In Slovakia. In: Abstracts of the 6th European Fusarium Seminar, 11-16 September (pp 44–45) BerlinGoogle Scholar
  105. Sydenham EW, Marasas WFO, Thiel PG, Shephard GS and Nieuwenhuis JJ (1991) Production of mycotoxins by selected Fusarium graminearum and F. crookwellense isolates. Food Additives and Contaminants 8: 31–41Google Scholar
  106. Szécsi A (1994) Occurrence of Fusarium species in section Liseola isolated from Hungarian corn samples in 1991 and 1992. Novenyvedelem 30: 313–318Google Scholar
  107. Szécsi A and Bartok T (1995) Trichothecene chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum from corn in Hungary. Mycotoxin Research 11: 85–92Google Scholar
  108. Usleber E, Straka M and Terplan G (1994) Enzyme immunoassay for fumonisin B1 applied to corn-based food. Journal Agricultural Food Chemistry 42: 1392–1396Google Scholar
  109. Visconti A (1996) Fumonisins in maize genotypes grown in various geographic areas. In: Jackson LS, De Vries WJ and Bullerman LB (eds) Fumonisins in Food (pp 193–204) Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  110. Visconti A, Chelkowski J, Solfrizzo M and Bottalico A (1990) Mycotoxins in corn ears naturally infected with Fusarium graminearum and F. crookwellense. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 12: 187–189Google Scholar
  111. Visconti A, Pascale M and Doko MB (1996) Fumonisins in Europe. Production by Fusarium isolated from cereals and occurrence in maize and maize products intended for human and animal consumption. In: Marengo G and Pastoni F (eds) The European Union's Innovative Policy Against Food-Transmitted Disease (pp 162–174) EUR16414 EN, ECSC-ECEAEC, Brussels, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  112. Wang ZG, Feng J and Tong Z (1993) Human toxicosis caused by moldy rice contaminated with Fusarium and T-2 toxin. Biomedical Environmental Science 6: 65–70Google Scholar
  113. Warfield CY and Gilchrist DG (1999) Influence of kernel age on fumonisin B1 production in maize by Fusarium moniliforme. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65: 2853–2856Google Scholar
  114. WHO (2000) International Programme on Chemical Safety. Environmental Health Criteria 219: Fumonisin B1. World Health Organization, Geneva, 150 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Logrieco
    • 1
  • G. Mulè
    • 1
  • A. Moretti
    • 1
  • A. Bottalico
    • 1
  1. 1.CNRInstitute of Sciences of Food ProductionBariItaly

Personalised recommendations