Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 423–446

Problem Behavior Interventions for Young Children with Autism: A Research Synthesis

  • Robert H. Horner
  • Edward G. Carr
  • Phillip S. Strain
  • Anne W. Todd
  • Holly K. Reed
Article

Abstract

This paper provides a summary of research on behavioral interventions for children with autism 8 years of age or younger published between 1996 and 2000. The analysis is divided into four sections: (1) emerging themes in the technology of behavior support, (2) a review of existing research syntheses focusing on behavioral interventions, (3) a new literature review of current pertinent research, and (4) an evaluative discussion of the synthesis results and the field's future needs to develop effective behavioral interventions for young children with autism. The authors offer recommendations for strengthening the existing research base and advancing behavioral technology to meet the needs of the defined target population.

Autism behavior support 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Baer, D. M., Peterson, R. F., & Sherman, J. A. (1967). The development of imitation by reinforcing behavioral similarity to a model. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 10, 405–416.Google Scholar
  2. Baer, D. M., & Sherman, J. A. (1964). Reinforcement control of generalized imitation in young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1, 37–49.Google Scholar
  3. Berkman, K. A., & Meyer, L. H. (1988). Alternative strategies and multiple outcomes in the remediation of severe self-injury: Going “all out” nonaversively. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 13, 76–86.Google Scholar
  4. Bijou, S., & Baer, D. M. (1961). Child development. Vol. I: A systematic and empirical theory. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  5. Bijou, S., & Baer, D. M. (1968). Child development. Vol. 2: Universal stage of infancy. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  6. Bijou, S. W., Peterson, R. F., & Ault, M. H. (1968). A method to integrate descriptive and experimental field studies at the level of data and empirical concepts. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 175–191.Google Scholar
  7. Borthwick-Duffy, S. A. (1996). Evaluation and quality of life: Special considerations for persons with mental retardation. In R. L. Schalock & G. N. Siperstein (Eds.), Quality of life. Vol. I: Conceptualization and measurement (pp. 105–120). Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.Google Scholar
  8. Bostow, D., & Baily, J. (1969). Modification of severe disruptive and aggressive behavior using brief time-out and reinforcement procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 37–37.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, F. (1999). Introduction to the special series on interventions for young children with autism: An evolving integrated knowledge-base. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24, 131–132.Google Scholar
  10. Browning, R., & Stover, D. (1971). Behavior modification in child treatment: An experimental and clinical approach. Chicago, IL: Aldine Atherton.Google Scholar
  11. Busk, P. L., & Serlin, R. C. (Eds.) (1992). Meta-analysis for singlecase research. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Carr, E. G. (1988). Functional equivalence as a mechanism of response generalization. In R. H. Horner, R. L. Koegel, & G. Dunlap (Eds.), Generalization and maintenance: Lifestyle changes in applied settings (pp. 194–219). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  13. Carr, E. G., Carlson, J. I., Langdon, N. A., Magito-McLaughlin, D., & Yarbrough, S. C. (1998). Two perspectives on antecedent control. In J. K. Luiselli & J. Cameron (Eds.), Antecedent control: Innovative approaches to behavioral support. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  14. Carr, E. G., Horner, R. H., Turnbull, A. P., Marquis, J. G., Magito-McLaughlin, D., McAtee, M. L., Smith, C. E., Anderson-Ryan, K. A., Ruef, M. B., & Doolabh, A. (1999). Positive behavior support for people with developmental disabilities: A research synthesis. Washington, D.C.: American Association on Mental Retardation Monograph Series.Google Scholar
  15. Carr, E. G., Langdon, N. A., & Yarbrough, S. (1999). Hypothesis based intervention for severe problem behavior. In A. C. Repp & R. H. Horner (Eds.), Functional analysis of problem behavior: From effective assessment to effective support. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.Google Scholar
  16. Carr, E. G., Levin, L., McConnachie, G., Carlson, J. I., Kemp, D. C., Smith, C. E., & McLaughlin, D. M. (1999). Comprehensive multisituational intervention for problem behavior in the community: Long-term maintenance and social validation. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 1(1), 5–25.Google Scholar
  17. Carr, E. G., Levin, L., McConnachie, G., Carlson, J. I., Kemp, D. C., & Smith, C. E. (1994). Communication based intervention for problem behavior: A users guide for producing positive change. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  18. Carr, E. G., & McDowell, J. (1980). Social control of self-injurious behavior of organic etiology. Behavior Therapy, 11, 402–409.Google Scholar
  19. *Charlop-Christy, M. H., & Haymes, L. K. (1996). Using obsessions as reinforces with and without mild reductive procedures to decrease inappropriate behaviors of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Development Disorders, 26, 527–546.Google Scholar
  20. *Charlop-Christy, M. H., & Haymes, L. K. (1998). Using objects of obsession as token reinforcers for children with autism. Journal of Autism and Development Disorders, 28, 189–197.Google Scholar
  21. Didden, R., Duker, P. C., & Korzilius, H. (1997). Meta-analytic study on treatment effectiveness for problem behaviors with individuals who have mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 101, 387–399.Google Scholar
  22. *Dunlap, G., & Fox, L. (1999). A demonstration of behavioral support for young children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1, 77–87.Google Scholar
  23. Dunlap, G., Kern-Dunlap, L., Clarke, S., & Robbins, F. R. (1991). Functional assessment, curricular revision, and severe problem behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 387–397.Google Scholar
  24. Dunlap, G., Kern, L., dePerczel, M., Clarke, S., Wilson, D., Childs, K. E., White, R., & Falk, G. D. (1993). Functional analysis of classroom variables for students with emotional and behavioral challenges. Behavioral Disorders, 18, 275–291.Google Scholar
  25. Ellingson, S. A., Miltenberger, R. G., Stricker, J., Galensky, T. L., & Garlinghouse, M. (2000, Spring). Functional assessment and intervention for challenging behaviors in the classroom by general classroom teachers. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 85–97.Google Scholar
  26. Emerson, E. (1995). Challenging behaviour: Analysis and intervention in people with learning difficulties. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Fisher, W., Piazza, C. C., Bowman, L. G., Hagopian, L. P., Owens, J. C., & Slevin, I. (1992). A comparison of two approaches for identifying reinforcers for persons with severe and profound disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 491–498.Google Scholar
  28. Guess, D., & Carr, E. G. (1991). Emergence and maintenance of stereotype and self-injury. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 96, 299–319.Google Scholar
  29. *Hechaman, K. A., Alber, S., Hooper, S., & Heward, W. L. (1998). A comparison of least-to-most prompts and progressive time delay on the disruptive behavior of students with autism. Journal of Behavioral Education, 8, 171–201.Google Scholar
  30. Horner, R. H. (1999). Positive behavior supports. In M. Wehmeyer & J. Patton (Eds.), Mental retardation in the 21st century. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  31. Horner, R. H., & Carr, E. G. (1997). Behavioral support for students with severe disabilities: Functional assessment and comprehensive intervention. Journal of Special Education, 31, 84–104.Google Scholar
  32. Horner, R., Close, D., Fredericks, H. D., ONeill, R. E., Albin, R. W., Sprague, J. R., Kennedy, C. H., Flannery, K. B., & Heathfield, L. T. (1996). Supported living for people with profound disabilities and severe problem behaviors. In D. H. Lehr & F. Brown (Eds.), People with disabilities who challenge the system (pp. 209–240). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  33. Horner, R. H., Diemer, S. M., & Brazeau, K. C. (1992). Educational support for students with severe problem behaviors in Oregon: A descriptive analysis from the 1987-88 school year. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 17, 154–169.Google Scholar
  34. Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1982). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 3–20.Google Scholar
  35. Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., & Dunlap, G. (1996). Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  36. Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., & Surratt, A. (1992). Language intervention and disruptive behavior in preschool children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 22, 141–153.Google Scholar
  37. *Koegel, L. K., Stiebel, D., & Koegel, R. L. (1998). Reducing aggression in children with autism toward infant or toddler siblings. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 23, 111–118.Google Scholar
  38. *Lennox, D. B., Miltenberger, R. G., Spengler, P., & Erfanian, N. (1988) Decelerative treatment practices with persons who have mental retardation: A review of five years of the literature. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 92, 492–501.Google Scholar
  39. Lewis, T. J., & Sugai, G. (1999). Effective behavior support: A systems approach to proactive school-wide management. Focus on Exceptionalities, 31, 1–24.Google Scholar
  40. Lucyshyn, J. M., Olson, D., & Horner, R. H. (1995). Building an ecology of support: A case study of one young woman with severe problem behaviors living in the community. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps. 20, 16–30.Google Scholar
  41. Marquis, J. G., Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Turnbull, A. P., Thompson, M., Behrens, G. A., Magito-McLaughlin, D., McAtee, M. L., Smith, C. E., Anderson-Ryan, K., & Doolabh, A. (2000). A Metaanalysis of positive behavior support. In R. Gersten, E. Schiller, S. Vaughn, & J. Schumm (Eds.), Contemporary special education research: Syntheses of knowledge base on critical instructional issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  42. Mason, S. A., McGee, G. G., Farmer-Dougan, V., Risley, T. R. (1989). A practical strategy for ongoing reinforcer assessment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22, 171–179.Google Scholar
  43. *McDougal, J., & Hiralall, A. S. (1998, April 14-18). Bridging research into practice to intervene with young aggressive students in the public school setting: Evaluation of the behavior consultation team (BCT) Project. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the National Association of School Psychologists, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  44. McGee, G., & Daly, T. (1999). Prevention of problem behaviors in preschool children. In A. C. Repp, & R. H. Horner (Eds.), Functional analysis of problem behavior: From effective assessment to effective support. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.Google Scholar
  45. McGee, G. G., Morrier, M. J., & Daly, T. (1999). An incidental teaching approach to early intervention for toddlers with autism. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24, 133–146.Google Scholar
  46. *Newman, B., Tuntigian, L., Ryan, C. S., & Reinecke, D. R. (1997). Self-management of a DRO procedure by three students with autism. Behavioral Interventions, 12, 149–156.Google Scholar
  47. Oliver, C., Murphy, G. H., & Corbett, J. A. (1987). Self-injurious behaviour in people with mental handicap: A total population study. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 31, 147–162.Google Scholar
  48. ONeill, R. E., Horner, R. H., Albin, R. W., Sprague, J. R., Storey, K., & Newton, J. S. (1997). Functional assessment for problem behavior: A practical handbook. (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brookes/Cole.Google Scholar
  49. *Reeve, C. E., & Carr, E. G. (2000). Prevention of severe behavior problems in children with developmental disorders. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 144–160. Google Scholar
  50. Reichle, J. (1990). National Working Conference on Positive Approaches to the Management of Excess Behavior: Final report and recommendations. Minneapolis, MN: Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  51. Repp, A., & Horner, R. H. (Eds.). (1999). Functional analysis of problem behavior: From effective assessment to effective support. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.Google Scholar
  52. Roane, H. S., Vollmer, T. R., Ringdahl, J. E., & Marcus, B. A. (1998). Evaluation of a brief stimulus preference assessment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 605–620.Google Scholar
  53. Rojahn, J. (1994). Epidemiology and topographic taxonomy of selfinjurious behavior. In T. Thompson & D. Gray (Eds.), Destructive behavior in developmental disabilities: Diagnosis and treatment (pp. 49–67). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.Google Scholar
  54. *Schreibman, L., Whalen, C., & Stahmer, A. C. (2000). The use of video priming to reduce disruptive transition behavior in children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 3–11.Google Scholar
  55. Scotti, J. R., Evans, I. M., Meyer, L. H., & Walker, P. (1991). A meta-analysis of intervention research with problem behavior: Treatment validity and standards of practice. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 96, 233–256.Google Scholar
  56. Scotti, J. R., Ujcich, K. J., Weigle, K. L., Holland, C. M., & Kirk, K. S. (1996). Interventions with challenging behavior of persons with developmental disabilities: A review of current research practices. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 21, 123–134.Google Scholar
  57. *Sigafoos, J., & Meikle, B. (1996). Functional communication training for the treatment of multiply determined challenging behavior in two boys with autism. Behavior Modification, 20, 60–84.Google Scholar
  58. Sprague, J. R., & Rian, V. (1993). Support systems for students with severe problem behaviors in Indiana: A descriptive analysis of school structure and student demographics: Unpublished manuscript, Indiana University Institute for the Study of Developmental Disabilities, Bloomington, IN.Google Scholar
  59. Strain, P. S., Wolery, M., & Izeman, S. (1998). Considerations for administrators in the design of service options for young children with autism and their families. Young Exceptional Children, 1, 8–16.Google Scholar
  60. Strain, P. S., Hoyson, M., & Jamieson, B. (1985). Normally developing preschoolers as intervention agents for autistic-like children: Effects on class deportment and social interaction. Journal of the Division for Early Childhood, 9, 105–115.Google Scholar
  61. Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., Dunlap, G., Lewis, T. J., Nelson, C. M., Scott, T., Liaupsin, C., Ruef, M., Sailor, W., Turnbull, A. P., Turnbull III, H. R., & Wickham, D. (2000). Applying positive behavior support and functional behavioral assessment in schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 131–143.Google Scholar
  62. Thompson, T., & Grabowski, J. G. (1972). Reinforcement schedules and multioperant analysis. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  63. Turnbull, A. P., & Ruef, M. (1996). Family perspectives on problem behavior. Mental Retardation, 34, 280–293.Google Scholar
  64. Turnbull, A. P., & Ruef, M. B. (1997). Family perspectives on inclusive lifestyle issues for individuals with problem behavior. Exceptional Children, 63, pp211-227.Google Scholar
  65. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (1991). Treatment of destructive behaviors in persons with developmental disabilities. Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert H. Horner
    • 1
  • Edward G. Carr
    • 2
  • Phillip S. Strain
    • 3
  • Anne W. Todd
    • 1
  • Holly K. Reed
    • 1
  1. 1.University of OregonEugene
  2. 2.State University of New YorkStony Brook
  3. 3.University of ColoradoDenver

Personalised recommendations