Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 81, Issue 1–4, pp 271–282 | Cite as

Biogeochemistry and microbial ecology of methane oxidation in anoxic environments: a review

  • David L. Valentine
Article

Abstract

Evidence supporting a key role for anaerobic methane oxidation in the global methane cycle is reviewed. Emphasis is on recent microbiological advances. The driving force for research on this process continues to be the fact that microbial communities intercept and consume methane from anoxic environments, methane that would otherwise enter the atmosphere. Anaerobic methane oxidation is biogeochemically important because methane is a potent greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and is abundant in anoxic environments. Geochemical evidence for this process has been observed in numerous marine sediments along the continental margins, in methane seeps and vents, around methane hydrate deposits, and in anoxic waters. The anaerobic oxidation of methane is performed by at least two phylogenetically distinct groups of archaea, the ANME-1 and ANME-2. These archaea are frequently observed as consortia with sulfate-reducing bacteria, and the metabolism of these consortia presumably involves a syntrophic association based on interspecies electron transfer. The archaeal member of a consortium apparently oxidizes methane and shuttles reduced compounds to the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Despite recent advances in understanding anaerobic methane oxidation, uncertainties still remain regarding the nature and necessity of the syntrophic association, the biochemical pathway of methane oxidation, and the interaction of the process with the local chemical and physical environment. This review will consider the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of anaerobic methane oxidation with a special emphasis on the interactions between the responsible organisms and their environment.

acetate anaerobic methane oxidation anoxic environments archaea interspecies hydrogen transfer methane hydrates subsurface biosphere syntrophy sulfate reduction 

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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • David L. Valentine
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Scripps Institution of Oceanography-0202University of California at San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of California at Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA

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