Advertisement

Conservation Genetics

, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 385–400 | Cite as

Managing fish populations under mosaic relationships. The case of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in peripheral Mediterranean populations

  • N. Sanz Ball-llosera
  • J.L. Garcìa-Marìn
  • C. Pla
Article

Abstract

Brown trout were collected from 36 locations inthe Iberian Peninsula representing thesouthwestern extreme of this species'distribution in Mediterranean drainages.Allelic distributions among these peripheralpopulations for 26 polymorphic allozyme loci(corrected to remove effects of introgressionfrom exogenous hatchery introductions)indicated a mosaic pattern both within andamong drainages. This distribution wasinterpreted to reflect reticular evolutionaryprocesses involving multiple colonizationepisodes by distinct lineages, secondaryintergradations, and drift. Under thisscenario, management to conserve native genepools differs from that commonly used underhierarchical structures (such as in AtlanticIberian drainages) where geographic patternscould justify regional stocking of indigenousfish in adjacent unsampled areas. Because suchaction risks erosion of native populations inthe present case, remedial efforts should focuson habitat recovery and environmental educationprograms, and harvest sustained by naturalreproduction.

brown trout conservation genetic diversity natural hybridisation phylogeny Salmo trutta 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allendorf FW, Waples RS (1996) Conservation and Genetics of Salmonid Fishes. In: Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature (eds. Avise JC, Hamrick JL), pp. 238–280. Chapman and Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Apostolidis AP, Triantaphyllidis C, Kouvatsi A, Economidis PS (1997) Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and phylogeography among Salmo trutta L. (Greek brown trout) populations. Mol. Ecol., 6, 531–542.Google Scholar
  3. Avise JC (1994) Molecular markers, natural history, and evolution. Chapman and Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Barbat-Leterrier A, Guyomard R, Krieg F (1989) Introgression between introduced domesticated strains and Mediterranean native populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta, L.). Aquat. Living Resour., 2, 215–223.Google Scholar
  5. Bernatchez L (2001) The evolutionary history of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) inferred from phylogeographic, nested clade, and mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA variation. Evolution, 55(2), 351–379.Google Scholar
  6. Bernatchez L, Guyomard R, Bonhomme F (1992) DNA sequence variation of the mitochondrial control region among geographically and morphologically remote European brown trout Salmo trutta populations. Mol. Ecol., 1, 161–173.Google Scholar
  7. Bernatchez L, Wilson C (1998) Comparative phylogeography of Nearctic and Palearctic fishes. Mol. Ecol., 7, 431–452.Google Scholar
  8. Berrebi P, Poteaux C, Fissier M, Cattaneo-Berrebi G (2000a) Stocking impact and allozyme diversity in brown trout from Mediterranean southern France. J. Fish Biol., 56, 949–960.Google Scholar
  9. Berrebi P, Povz M, Jesensek D, Cattaneo-Berrebi G, Crivelli AJ (2000b) The genetic diversity of native, stocked and hybrid populations of marble trout in the Soca River, Slovenia. Heredity, 85, 277–287.Google Scholar
  10. Cavalli-Sforza LL, Edwards AWF (1967) Phylogenetic analysis: Models and estimation procedures. Evolution, 32, 550–570.Google Scholar
  11. Chakraborty R, Haag M, Ryman N, Ståhl G (1982) Hierarchical gene diversity and its application to brown trout population data. Hereditas, 97, 17–21.Google Scholar
  12. Chakraborty R, Leimar O (1987) Genetic variation within a subdivided population. In: Populations genetics and Fishery management (eds. Ryman N, Utter F), pp. 89–120. Washington Sea Grant Program, University of Washington Press, Seattle and London.Google Scholar
  13. Crozier WW, Ferguson A (1986) Electrophoretic examination of the population structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lough Neagh catchment, Northern Ireland. J. Fish Biol., 28, 459–477.Google Scholar
  14. Doadrio I, Perdices A, Machordom A (1996) Allozymic variation of the endangered killifish Aphanius iberus and its aplication to conservation. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 45, 259–271.Google Scholar
  15. Dodson JJ, Gibson RJ, Cunjak RA, Friendland KD, Garcia de Leaniz C, Gross MR, Newburym R, Nielsen JL, Power ME, Roy S (1998) Elements in the development of conservation plans for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 55, 312–323.Google Scholar
  16. Dorofeeva EA (1998) Systematics and Distribution History of European Salmonid Fishes of the Genus Salmo. J. Ichthyol., 38(6), 419–429.Google Scholar
  17. Douglas MR, Brunner PC, Bernatchez L (1999) Do assemblages of Coregonus (Teleostei: Salmoniformes) in the Central Alpine region of Europe represent species flocks?. Mol. Ecol., 8(4), 589–603.Google Scholar
  18. Ferguson A, Mason FM (1981) Allozyme evidence for reproductively isolated sympatric populations of brown trout Salmo trutta L. in Lough Melvin, Ireland. J. Fish Biol., 18, 629–642.Google Scholar
  19. Ferguson A, Taggart JB (1991) Genetic differentiation among the sympatric brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations of Lough Melvin, Ireland. Biol. J. of Linn. Soc., 43, 221–237.Google Scholar
  20. García-Marín JL, Jorde PE, Ryman N, Utter F, Pla C (1991). Management implications of genetic differentiation between native and hatchery populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Spain. Aquaculture, 95, 235–249.Google Scholar
  21. García-Marín JL, Pla C (1996) Origins and relationships of native populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Spain. Heredity, 77, 313–323.Google Scholar
  22. García-Marín JL, Sanz N, Pla C (1998) Proportions of Native and Introduced Brown Trout in Adjacent Fished and Unfished Spanish Rivers. Conserv. Biol., 12, 313–319.Google Scholar
  23. García-Marín JL, Sanz N, Pla C (1999a) Erosion of the native genetic resources of brown trout in Spain. Ecology of Freshwater fish, 8, 151–158.Google Scholar
  24. García-Marín JL, Utter FM, Pla C (1999b) Postglacial colonization of brown trout in Europe based on distribution of allozyme variants. Heredity, 80, 46–56.Google Scholar
  25. Giuffra E, Guyomard R, Forneris G (1996) Phylogenetic relationships and introgression patterns between incipient parapatric species of Italian brown trout (Salmo trutta L. complex). Mol. Ecol., 5, 207–220.Google Scholar
  26. Goldstein PZ, DeSalle R, Amato G, Vogler AP (2000) Conservation Genetics at the Species Boundary. Conserv. Biol., 14, 120–131.Google Scholar
  27. Goudet J (1995) Fstat version 1.2: A computer program to calculate F-statistics. J. Heredity, 86, 485–486.Google Scholar
  28. Gower JC (1966) Some distance proporties of latent root and vector methods in multivariate analysis. Biometrika, 53, 315–328.Google Scholar
  29. Grant WS, García-Marín JL, Utter FM (1999) Defining Population Boundaries for Fishery Management. In: Genetics in sustainable fisheries management. Fishing News Book (ed. Saleem M), pp. 27–72. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford.Google Scholar
  30. Hewitt HGM (2000) The genetic legacy of the Quaternary ice ages. Nature, 405, 907–913.Google Scholar
  31. Hillis DM, Mable BK, Moritz C (1996) Application of Molecular Systematics: the state of the field and a look to the future. In: Molecular Systematics, 2nd edn (eds. Hillis DM, Moritz C, Mable BK), pp. 515–544. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers, Sunderland.Google Scholar
  32. Jonasson PM, Jonsson B, Sandlund OT (1998) Continental Rifting and Habitat Formation: Arena for Resource Polymorphism in Artic Charr. Ambio, 27(3), 162–169.Google Scholar
  33. Karakousis Y, Triantaphyllidis CD (1990) Genetic structure and differentiation among Greek brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) populations. Heredity, 64, 297–304.Google Scholar
  34. Kottelat M (1997) European freshwater fishes. An heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR), with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia, Section Zoology, 52(Suppl. 5), 1–271.Google Scholar
  35. Krieg F, Guyomard R (1985) Population genetics of French brown trout (Salmo trutta L.): Large geographical differentiation of wild populations and high similarity of domesticated stocks. Génét. Sél. Evol., 17(2), 225–242.Google Scholar
  36. Laikre L (1999) Conservation Genetic Management of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in Europe. Report by the Concerted Action on Identification, Management and Exploitation of Genetic Resources in the Brown trout (Salmo trutta) ('TROUTCONCERT'; EU FAIR CT97-3882). ISBN 87-987732-0-8.Google Scholar
  37. Machordom A, Suárez J, Almodóvar A, Bautista JM (2000) Mitochondrial haplotype variation and phylogeography of Iberian brown trout populations. Mol. Ecol., 9, 1324–1338.Google Scholar
  38. Moritz C, Lavery S, Slade R (1995) Using Allele Frequency and Phylogeny to Define Units for Conservation and Management. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 17, 249–262.Google Scholar
  39. Muñoz M, Casadevall M (1997) Fish remains from Arbreda Cave (Serinyà, Girona), northeast Spain, and their palaeoecological significance. J. Quaternary Sci., 12(2), 111–115.Google Scholar
  40. Ryman N, Allendorf FW, Ståhl G (1979) Reproductive isolation with little genetic divergence in sympatric populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Genetics, 92, 247–262.Google Scholar
  41. Ryman N, Utter F, Laikre L (1995) Protection of intraspecific biodiversity of exploited fishes. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish., 5, 417–446.Google Scholar
  42. Saitou N, Nei M (1987) The neighbor-joining method: A new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol. Biol. Evol., 4, 406–425.Google Scholar
  43. Sanz N, García-Marín JL, Pla C (2000) Divergence of brown trout (Salmo trutta): Evolution within glacial refugia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 57, 2201–2210.Google Scholar
  44. Schultz RJ (1969) Hybridization, unisexuality and polyploidy in the teleost Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae) and other vertebrates. Amer. Natur., 103, 613–619.Google Scholar
  45. Waples RS (1991) Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus sp., and the definition of ‘species’ under the Endangered Species Act. US National Marine Fisheries Service Marine Fisheries Review, 53(3), 11–22.Google Scholar
  46. Waples RS (1998) Separating theWheat From the Chaff: Patterns of Genetic Differentiation in High Gene Flow Species. J. Heredity, 89(5), 438–450.Google Scholar
  47. Weiss S, Schlötterer C, Waidbacher H, Jungwirth M (2001) Haplotype (mtDNA) diversity of brown trout Salmo trutta in tributaries of the Austrian Danube: Massive introgression of Atlantic basin fish-by man or nature?. Mol. Ecol., 10, 1241–1246.Google Scholar
  48. Workman PL, Niswander JD (1970) Population studies on Southwestern Indian tribes. II. Local genetic differentiation in the Papago. Amer. J. Hum. Gen., 22, 24–29.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Sanz Ball-llosera
    • 1
  • J.L. Garcìa-Marìn
    • 1
  • C. Pla
    • 1
  1. 1.Facultat de CiènciesLaboratori d'Ictiologia genèticaGironaSpain

Personalised recommendations