Predation is a major mortality factor of planktonic bacteria and an important shaping force for the phenotypic and taxonomic structure of bacterial communities. In this paper we: (1) summarise current knowledge on bacterial phenotypic properties which affect their vulnerability towards grazers, and (2) review experimental evidence demonstrating that this phenotypic heterogeneity results in shifts of bacterial community composition during enhanced protist grazing pressure. Size-structured interactions are especially important in planktonic systems and bacterial cell size influences the mortality rate and the type of grazer to which bacteria are most susceptible. When protists are the major bacterivores, both very small and large bacterial cells gain some size refuge. Recent studies have revealed that also various non-morphological traits such as motility, physicochemical surface characters and toxicity affect bacterial vulnerability and protist feeding success. These properties are effective at different stages during the feeding process of interception feeding flagellates (encounter, capture, ingestion, digestion). Grazing-resistant bacteria in natural communities can account for a substantial portion of the total bacterial biomass at least in more productive aquatic systems. In field and laboratory experiments it has been demonstrated that increased protozoan grazing results in shifts in the phenotypic and genotypic composition of the bacterial assemblage. The importance of this shaping force for the bacterial community structure depends, however, on the overall food web structure, especially on the composition of the metazooplankton. Whereas the structuring impact of bacterial grazers is well documented, relatively little is known about how grazing-mediated changes in bacterial communities influence microbially mediated processes and biogeochemically important transformations.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Arndt H (1993) Rotifers as predators on components of the microbial web (bacteria, heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates) - a review. Hydrobiologia 255/256: 231–246.
Arndt H, Dietrich D, Auer B, Cleven E-J, Gräfenhan T, Weitere M & Mylnikov A (2000) Functional diversity of heterotrophic flagellates in aquatic ecosystems. In: Leadbeater B & Green J (Eds) The Flagellates (pp 240–268). Taylor and Francis, London.
Bennett SJ, Sanders RW & Porter KG (1988) Chemosensory responses of heterotrophic and mixotrophic flagellates to potential food sources. Bull. Mar. Sci. 43: 764–771.
Bernard L, Courties C, Servais P, Troussellier M, Petit M & Lebaron P (2000) Relationships among bacterial cell size, productivity, and genetic diversity in aquatic environments using cell sorting and flow cytometry. Microb. Ecol. 40: 148–158.
Bianchi M (1989) Unusual bloom of a star-like prosthecate bacteria and filaments as a consequence of grazing pressure. Microb. Ecol. 17: 137–142.
Billen G, Servais P & Becquevort S (1990) Dynamics of bacterioplankton in oligotrophic and eutrophic aquatic environments: bottom-up or top-down control? Hydrobiologia 207: 37–42.
Blackburn N, Fenchel T & Mitchell J (1998) Microscale nutrient patches in planktonic habitats shown by chemotactic bacteria. Science 282: 2254–2256.
Boenigk J & Arndt H (2000a) Comparative studies on the feeding behavior of two heterotrophic nanoflagellates: the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Monosiga ovata and the raptorial-feeding kinetoplastid Rhynchomonas nasuta. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 22: 243–249.
Boenigk J & Arndt H (2000b) Particle handling during interception feeding by four species of heterotrophic nanoflagellates. J. Euk. Microbiol. 47: 350–358.
Boenigk J, Matz C, Jürgens K & Arndt H (2001a) Confusing selective feeding with differential digestion in bacterivorous nanoflagellates. J. Euk. Microbiol. 48: 425–432.
Boenigk J, Matz C, Jürgens K & Arndt H (2001b) The influence of preculture conditions and food quality on the ingestion and digestion process of three species of heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Microb. Ecol. 42: 168–176.
Boenigk J, Matz C, Jürgens K & Arndt H (2002) Food concentration dependent regulation of food selectivity of interceptionfeeding bacterivorous nanoflagellates. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 27: 195–202.
Bohannan BJM & Lenski RE (2000) The relative importance of competition and predation varies with productivity in a model community. Am. Nat. 156: 329–340.
Boonaert CJP & Rouxhet PG (2000) Surface of lactic acid bacteria: Relationships between chemical composition and physicochemical properties. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 2548–2554.
Brendelberger H (1991) Filter mesh size of cladocerans predicts retention efficiency for bacteria. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36: 884–894.
Brown R, Bass H & Coombs J (1975) Carbohydrate binding proteins involved in phagocytosis by Acanthamoeba. Nature 254: 434–435.
Choi JW, Sherr BF & Sherr EB (1999) Dead or alive? A large fraction of ETS-inactive marine bacterioplankton cells, as assessed by reduction of CTC, can become ETS-active with incubation and substrate addition. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 18: 105–115.
Christaki U, Dolan JR, Pelegri S & Rassoulzadegan F (1998) Consumption of picoplankton-size particles by marine ciliates: Effects of physiological state of the ciliate and particle quality. Limnol. Oceanogr. 43: 458–464.
Christoffersen K (1996) Ecological implications of cyanobacterial toxins in aquatic food webs. Phycologia 35: 42–50.
Chrzanowski TH & Šimek K (1990) Prey-size selection by freshwater flagellated protozoa. Limnol. Oceanogr. 35: 1429–1436.
Cole JJ (1999) Aquatic microbiology for ecosystem scientists: New and recycled paradigms in ecological microbiology. Ecosystems 2: 215–225.
Cotner JB, Gardner WS, Johnson JR, Sada RH, Cavaletto JF & Heath RT (1995) Effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on bacterioplankton - evidence for both size-selective consumption and growth stimulation. J. Great Lakes Res. 21: 517–528.
Cottrell MT & Kirchman DL (2000) Natural assemblages of marine proteobacteria and members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacter cluster consuming low-and high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66: 1692–1697.
Decho AW (1990) Microbial exopolymer secretions in oceanic environments: Their role(s) in food webs and marine processes. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 28: 73–153.
Del Giorgio PA, Gasol JM, Vaqué D, Mura P, Agusti S & Duarte CM (1996) Bacterioplankton community structure - protists control net production and the proportion of active bacteria in a coastal marine community. Limnol. Oceanogr. 41: 1169–1179.
DeMott WR (1995) Food selection by calanoid copepods in response to between-lake variation in food abundance. Freshwat. Biol. 33: 171–180.
Ellwood DC & Tempest DW (1972) Effects of environment on bacterial wall content and composition. Adv. Microb. Phys. 7: 83–117.
Elser JJ & Goldman CR (1991) Zooplankton effects on phytoplankton in lakes of contrasting trophic status. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36: 64–90.
Engström-Öst J, Koski M, Schmidt K, Viitasalo M, Jonasdottir S, Kokkonen M, Repka S & Sivonen K (in press) Effects of toxic cyanobacteria on a plankton assemblage: community development during decay of Nodularia spumigena. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
Fenchel T (1980) Relation between particle size selection and clearance in suspension-feeding ciliates. Limnol. Oceanogr. 25: 733–738.
Fenchel T (1982a) Ecology of heterotrophic microflagellates. I. Some important forms and their functional morphology. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 8: 211–223.
Fenchel T (1982b) Ecology of heterotrophic microflagellates. IV. Quantitative occurrence and importance as bacterial consumers. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 9: 35–41.
Fenchel T (1984) Suspended marine bacteria as a food source. In: Fasham MJ (Ed) Flows of Energy and Materials in Marine Ecosystems (pp 301–315). Plenum Press, New York
Fenchel T (1986) Protozoan filter feeding. Progr.Protistol. 1: 65–113.
Fenchel T (2001) Eppur si muove: many water column bacteria are motile. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 24: 197–201.
Fenchel T & Harrison P (1976) The significance of bacterial grazing and mineral cycling for the decomposition of particulate detritus. In: Anderson JM & Macfadyen A (Eds) The Role of Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms in Decomposition Processes (pp 285–299). Blackwell, Oxford.
Flynn KJ, Davidson K & Cunningham A (1996) Prey selection and rejection by a microflagellate: Implications for the study and operation of microbial food webs. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 196: 357–372.
Frischer ME, Nierzwicki-Bauer SA, Parsons RH, Vathanodorn K & Waitkus KR (2000) Interactions between zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and microbial communities. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 57: 591–599.
Fuhrman J (2000) Impact of viruses on bacterial processes. In: Kirchman D (Ed) Microbial Ecology of the Oceans (pp 327–350). Wiley-Liss, New York.
Gasol JM, Del Giorgio PA, Massana R & Duarte cm (1995) Active versus inactive bacteria: Size-dependence in a coastal marine plankton community. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 128: 91–97.
Geesey GG (1982) Microbial exopolymers: ecological and economic considerations. ASM News 48: 9–14.
Glöckner FO, Fuchs BM & Amann R (1999) Bacterioplankton compositions of lakes and oceans: a first comparison based on fluorescence in situ hybridization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 3721–3726.
González JM (1996) Efficient size-selective bacterivory by phagotrophic nanoflagellates in aquatic ecosystems. Mar. Biol. 126: 785–789.
González JM, Iriberri J, Egea L & Barcina I (1990a) Differential rates of digestion of bacteria by freshwater and marine phagotrophic protozoa. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56: 1851–1857.
González JM, Sherr EB & Sherr BF (1990b) Size-selective grazing on bacteria by natural assemblages of estuarine flagellates and ciliates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56: 583–589.
González JM, Sherr EB & Sherr BF (1993) Differential feeding by marine flagellates on growing versus starving, and on motile versus nonmotile, bacterial prey. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 102: 257–267.
González JM & Suttle CA (1993) Grazing by marine nanoflagellates on viruses and virus-sized particles: ingestion and digestion. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 94: 1–10.
Grossart HP, Riemann L & Azam F (2001) Bacterial motility in the sea and its ecological implications. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 25: 247–258.
Güde H (1979) Grazing by protozoa as selection factor for activated sludge bacteria. Microb. Ecol. 5: 225–237.
Güde H (1982) Interactions between floc-forming and nonflocforming bacterial populations from activated sludge. Curr. Microbiol. 7: 347–350.
Güde H (1989) The role of grazing on bacteria in plankton succession. In: Sommer U (Ed) Plankton Ecology. Succession in Plankton Communities (pp 337–364). Springer Verlag, Berlin.
Guixa-Boixereu N, Lysnes K & Pedrós-Alió C (1999) Viral lysis and bacterivory during a phytoplankton bloom in a coastal water microcosm. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 1949–1958.
Hahn MW & Höfle MG (2001) Grazing of protozoa and its effect on populations of aquatic bacteria. FEMS Microb. Ecol. 35: 113–121.
Hahn MW & Höfle MG (1998) Grazing pressure by a bacterivorous flagellate reverses the relative abundance of Comamonas acidovorans Px54 and Vibrio strain Cb5 in chemostat cocultures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 1910–1918.
Hahn MW & Höfle MG (1999) Flagellate predation on a bacterial model community: Interplay of size-selective grazing, specific bacterial cell size, and bacterial community composition. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 4863–4872.
Hahn MW, Moore ERB & Höfle MG (2000) Role of microcolony formation in the protistan grazing defense of the aquatic bacterium Pseudomonas sp MWH1. Microb. Ecol. 39: 175–185.
Hahn MW, Moore ERB & Höfle MG (1999) Bacterial filament formation, a defense mechanism against flagellate grazing, is growth rate controlled in bacteria of different phyla. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 25–35.
Hammer A, Grüttner C & Schumann R (1999) The effect of electrostatic charge of food particles on capture efficiency by Oxyrrhis marina Dujardin (dinoflagellate). Protist 150: 375–382.
Hammond S, Lambert P & Rycoft A (1984) The Bacterial Cell Surface. Croom Helm, London.
Havskum H & Hansen AS (1997) Importance of pigmented and colourless nano-sized protists as grazers on nanoplankton in a phosphate-depleted Norwegian fjord and in enclosures. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 12: 139–151.
Heissenberger A, Leppard GG & Herndl GJ (1996) Relationship between the intracellular integrity and the morphology of the capsular envelope in attached and free-living marine bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 4521–4528.
Hirsch P & Müller M (1985) Planctomyces limnophilus sp. nov., a stalked and budding bacterium from freshwater. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6: 276–280.
Holen DA & Boraas ME (1991) The feeding behavior of Spumella sp. as a function of particle size: Implications for bacterial size in pelagic systems. Hydrobiologia 220: 73–88.
Horwitz M & Silverstein S (1980) Influence of the Escherichia coli capsule on complement fixation and on phagocytosis and killing by human phagocytes. J. Clin. Invest. 65: 82–94.
Hunter R (1993) Introduction to Modern Colloid Science. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Jürgens K (1994) Impact ofDaphnia on planktonic microbial food webs - A review. Mar. Microb. Food Webs 8: 295–324.
Jürgens K, Arndt H & Rothhaupt KO (1994) Zooplankton-mediated changes of bacterial community structure. Microb. Ecol. 27: 27–42.
Jürgens K & DeMott WR (1995) Behavioral flexibility in prey selection by bacterivorous nanoflagellates. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40: 1503–1507.
Jürgens K, Gasol JM & Vaqué D (2000) Bacteria-flagellate coupling in microcosm experiments in the Central Atlantic Ocean. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 245: 127–147.
Jürgens K & Güde H (1994) The potential importance of grazingresistant bacteria in planktonic systems. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 112: 169–188.
Jürgens K & Jeppesen E (2000) The impact of metazooplankton on the structure of the microbial food web in a shallow, hypertrophic lake. J. Plankton Res. 22: 1047–1070.
Jürgens K, Pernthaler J, Schalla S & Amann R (1999) Morphological and compositional changes in a planktonic bacterial community in response to enhanced protozoan grazing. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 1241–1250.
Jürgens K & Sala MM (2000) Predation-mediated shifts in size distribution of microbial biomass and activity during detritus decomposition. Oikos 91: 29–40.
Jürgens K & Šimek K (2000) Functional response and particle size selection of Halteria cf. grandinella, a common freshwater oligotrichous ciliate. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 22: 57–68.
Jürgens K & Stolpe G (1995) Seasonal dynamics of crustacean zooplankton, heterotrophic nanoflagellates and bacteria in a shallow, eutrophic lake. Freshwat. Biol. 33: 27–38.
Jürgens K, Wickham SA, Rothhaupt KO & Santer B (1996) Feeding rates of macro-and microzooplankton on heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Limnol. Oceanogr. 41: 1833–1839.
Kaprelyants AS, Gottschal JC & Kell DB (1993) Dormancy in nonsporulating bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 104: 271–286.
Kemp PF, Newell SY & Krambeck C (1990) Effects of filter-feeding by the ribbed mussel Geukensia demissa on the water-column microbiota of a Spartina alterniflora saltmarsh. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 59: 119–132.
King CH, Shotts EB, Wooley RE & Porter KG (1988) Survival of coliforms and bacterial pathogens within protozoa during chlorination. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 3023–3033.
King KR, Hollibaugh JT & Azam F (1980) Predator-prey interactions between the larvacean Oikopleura dioica and bacterioplankton in enclosed water columns. Mar. Biol. 56: 49–57.
Kjelleberg S, Albertson N, Flärdh K, Holmquist L, Jouper-Jaan A, Marouga R, Östling J, Svenblad B & Weichart D (1993) How do non-differentiating bacteria adapt to starvation? Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 63: 333–341.
Koval SF (1993) Predation on bacteria possessing S-layers. In: Beveridge TJ & Koval SF (Eds) Advances in Bacterial Paracrystalline Surface Layers (pp 85–92). Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York.
Lampert W (1987) Predictability in lake ecosystems: the role of biotic interactions. In: Schulze ED & Zwölfer H (Eds) Potential and Limitations of Ecosystem Analysis. Ecological Studies 61 (pp 333–346). Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Landry MR, Lehner-Fournier JM, Sundstrom JA, Fagerness VL & Selph KE (1991) Discrimination between living and heat-killed prey by a marine zooflagellate Paraphysomonas vestita Stokes. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 146: 139–152.
Langenheder S & Jürgens K (2001) Regulation of bacterial biomass and community structure by metazoan and protozoan predation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46: 121–134.
Lavrentyev PJ, Gardner WS & Johnson JR (1997) Cascading trophic effects on aquatic nitrification - experimental evidence and potential implications. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 13: 161–175.
Lebaron P, Servais P, Troussellier M, Courties C, Muyzer G, Bernard L, Schäfer H, Pukall R, Stackebrandt E, Guindulain T & Vives-Rego J (2001) Microbial community dynamics in Mediterranean nutrient-enriched seawater mesocosms: changes in abundances, activity and composition. FEMS Microb. Ecol. 34: 255–266.
Leibold MA (1989) Resource edibility and the effects of predators and productivity on the outcome of trophic interactions. Am. Nat. 134: 922–949.
Lenski RE, Mongold JA, Sniegowski PD, Travisano M, Vasi F, Gerrish PJ & Schmidt TM (1998) Evolution of competitive fitness in experimental population of E. coli: What makes one genotype a better competitor than another? Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 73: 35–47.
Levrat P, Pussard M & Alabouvette C (1992) Enhanced bacterial metabolism of a Pseudomonas strain in response to the addition of culture filtrate of a bacteriophagous amoeba. Europ. J. Protistol. 28: 79–84.
Matz C, Boenigk J, Arndt H & Jürgens K (2002a) Role of bacterial phenotypic traits in selective feeding of the heterotrophic nanoflagellate Spumella sp. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 27: 137–148.
Matz C, Deines P & Jürgens K (2002b) Phenotypic variation in Pseudomonas sp. CM10 determines microcolony formation and survival under protozoan grazing. FEMS Microb. Ecol. 39: 57–65.
Matz C & Jürgens K (2001) Effects of hydrophobic and electrostatic cell surface properties of bacteria on feeding rates of heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 814–820.
Mitchell JG, Pearson L, Bonazinga A, Dillon S, Khouri H & Paxinos R (1995a) Long lag times and high velocities in the motility of natural assemblages of marine bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 877–882.
Mitchell JG, Pearson L, Dillon S & Kantalis K (1995b) Natural assemblages of marine bacteria exhibiting high-speed motility and large accelerations. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 4436–4440.
Monger BC & Landry MR (1990) Direct-interception feeding by marine zooflagellates: the importance of surface and hydrodynamic forces. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 65: 123–140.
Monger BC & Landry MR (1991) Prey-size dependency of grazing by free-living marine flagellates. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 74: 239–248.
Monger BC & Landry MR (1992) Size-selective grazing by heterotrophic nanoflagellates: an analysis using live-stained bacteria and dual-beam flow cytometry. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. Ergebn. Limnol. 37: 173–185.
Monger BC, Landry MR & Brown SL (1999) Feeding selection of heterotrophic marine nanoflagellates based on the surface hydrophobicity of their picoplankton prey. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44: 1917–1927.
Morita RY (1982) Starvation-survival of heterotrophs in the marine environment. Adv. Microb. Ecol. 6: 171–198.
Mozes N, Leonard AJ & Rouxhet PG (1988) On the relations between the elemental surface composition of yeasts and bacteria and their charge and hydrophobicity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 945: 324–334.
Nagata T & Kirchman DL (1992) Release of dissolved organic matter by heterotrophic protozoa: implications for microbial food webs. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. Ergebn. Limnol. 35: 99–109.
Nold S & Zwart G (1998) Patterns and governing forces in aquatic microbial communities. Aquat. Ecol. 32: 17–35.
Nyström T, Olsson RM & Kjelleberg S (1992) Survival stress resistance and alterations in protein expression in the marine Vibrio sp strain s14 during starvation for different individual nutrients. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58: 55–65.
Ofek I, Goldhar J, Keisari Y & Sharon N (1995) Nonopsonic phagocytosis of microorganisms. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 49: 239–276.
Pace ML & Cole JJ (1994) Comparative and experimental approaches to top-down and bottom-up regulation of bacteria. Microb. Ecol. 28: 181–193.
Pace ML & Cole JJ (1996) Regulation of bacteria by resources and predation tested in whole-lake experiments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 41: 1448–1460.
Pearson A (1996) Scavenger receptors in innate immunity. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 8: 20–28.
Pernthaler J, Posch T, Šimek K, Vrba J, Amann R & Psenner R (1997) Contrasting bacterial strategies to coexist with a flagellate predator in an experimental microbial assemblage. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 596–601.
Pernthaler J, Posch T, Šimek K, Vrba J, Pernthaler A, Glöckner FO, Nübel U, Psenner R & Amann R (2001) Predator-specific enrichment of Actinobacteria from a cosmopolitan freshwater clade in mixed continuous culture. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 2145–2155.
Pernthaler J, Sattler B, Šimek K, Schwarzenbacher A & Psenner R (1996) Top-down effects on the size-biomass distribution of a freshwater bacterioplankton community. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 10: 255–263.
Plante CJ (2000) Role of bacterial exopolymeric capsules in protection from deposit-feeder digestion. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 21: 211–219.
Plante CJ & Shriver AG (1998) Differential lysis of sedimentary bacteria by Arenicola marina L.: Examination of cell wall structure and exopolymeric capsules as correlates. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 229: 35–52.
Posch T, Jezbera J, Vrba J, Šimek K, Pernthaler J, Andreatta S & Sonntag B (2001) Size selective feeding in Cyclidium glaucoma (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) and its effects on bacterial community structure: A study from a continuous cultivation system. Microb. Ecol. 42: 217–227.
Posch T, Šimek K, Vrba J, Pernthaler S, Nedoma J, Sattler B, Sonntag B & Psenner R (1999) Predator-induced changes of bacterial size-structure and productivity studied on an experimental microbial community. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 18: 235–246.
Psenner R & Sommaruga R (1992) Are rapid changes in bacterial biomass caused by shifts from top-down to bottom-up control? Limnol. Oceanogr. 37: 1092–1100.
Ramoino P (1997) Lectin-binding glycoconjugates in Paramecium primaurelia: changes with cellular age and starvation. Histochem. Cell Biol. 107: 321–329.
Roszak DB & Colwell RR (1987) Survival strategies of bacteria in the natural environment. Microbiol. Rev. 51: 365–379.
Sakaguchi M, Murakami H & Suzaki T (2001) Involvement of a 40-kDA glycoprotein in food recognition, prey capture, and induction of phagocytosis in the protozoon Actinophrys sol. Protist 152: 33–41.
Sanders RW (1988) Feeding by Cyclidium sp. (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) on particles of different sizes and surface properties. Bull. mar. Sci. 43: 446–457.
Sanders RW, Leeper DA, King CH & Porter KG (1994) Grazing by rotifers and crustacean zooplankton on nanoplanktonic protists. Hydrobiologia 288: 167–181.
Sanders RW & Wickham SA (1993) Planktonic protozoa and metazoa: Predation, food quality and population control. Mar. Microb. Food Webs 7: 197–223.
Schäfer H, Bernard L, Courties C, Lebaron P, Servais P, Pukall R, Stackebrandt E, Troussellier M, Guindulain T, Vives-Rego J & Muyzer G (2001) Microbial community dynamics in Mediterranean nutrient-enriched seawater mesocosms: changes in the genetic diversity of bacterial populations. FEMS Microb. Ecol. 34: 243–253.
Schmaljohann R, Pollingher U & Berman T (1987) Natural populations of bacteria in Lake Kinneret: Observations with scanning electron and epifluorescence microscopy. Microb. Ecol. 13: 1–12.
Sherr BF, del Giorgio P & Sherr EB (1999) Estimating abundance and single-cell characteristics of respiring bacteria via the redox dye CTC. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 18: 117–131.
Sherr BF & Sherr EB (1991) Proportional distribution of total numbers, biovolume and bacterivory among size classes of 2-20 µm nonpigmented marine flagellates. Mar. Microb. Food Webs 5: 227–237.
Sherr BF, Sherr EB & Berman T (1982) Decomposition of organic detritus: A selective role for microflagellate protozoa. Limnol. Oceanogr. 27: 765–769.
Sherr EB (1988) Direct use of high molecular weight polysaccharide by heterotrophic flagellates. Nature 335: 348–351.
Sherr EB & Sherr BF (1987) High rates of consumption of bacteria by pelagic ciliates. Nature 325: 710–711.
Sibbald MJ, Albright LJ & Sibbald PR (1987) Chemosensory response of a heterotrophic microflagellate to bacteria and several nitrogen compounds. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 36: 201–201.
Sih A (1993) Effects of ecological interactions on forager diets: competition, predation risk, parasitism and prey behaviour. In: Hughes RN (Ed) Diet Selection: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Foraging Behaviour (pp 182–211). Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.
Šimek K, Bobkova J, Macek M, Nedoma J & Psenner R (1995) Ciliate grazing on picoplankton in a eutrophic reservoir during the summer phytoplankton maximum: A study at the species and community level. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40: 1077–1090.
Šimek K & Chrzanowski TH (1992) Direct and indirect evidence of size-selective grazing on pelagic bacteria by freshwater nanoflagellates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58: 3715–3720.
Šimek K, Kojecka P, Nedoma J, Hartman P, Vrba J & Dolan JR (1999) Shifts in bacterial community composition associated with different microzooplankton size fractions in a eutrophic reservoir. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44: 1634–1644.
Šimek K, Pernthaler J, Weinbauer MG, Hornak K, Dolan JR, Nedoma J, Masin M & Amann R (2001) Changes in bacterial community composition and dynamics and viral mortality rates associated with enhanced flagellate grazing in a mesoeutrophic reservoir. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 2723–2733.
Šimek K, Vrba J, Pernthaler J, Posch T, Hartman P, Nedoma J & Psenner R (1997) Morphological and compositional shifts in an experimental bacterial community influenced by protists with contrasting feeding modes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 587–595.
Sime-Ngando T, Bourdier G, Amblard C & Pinel Alloul B (1991) Short-term variations in specific biovolumes of different bacterial forms in aquatic ecosystems. Microb. Ecol. 21: 211–226.
Singh B (1942) Toxic effects of certain bacterial metabolic products on soil protozoa. Nature 149: 168.
Snyder RA (1991) Chemoattraction of a bactivorous ciliate to bacteria surface compounds. Hydrobiologia 215: 205–214.
Sommaruga R & Psenner R (1995) Permanent presence of grazingresistant bacteria in a hypertrophic Lake. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61: 3457–3459.
Sterner RW (1989) The role of grazers in phytoplankton succession. In: Sommer U (Ed) Plankton Ecology - Succession in Plankton Communities (pp 107–169). Springer, Berlin.
Stoderegger KE & Herndl GJ (2001) Visualization of the exopolysaccharide bacterial capsule and its distribution in oceanic environments. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 26: 195–199.
Stoecker DK & Capuzzo JM (1990) Predation on protozoa: its importance to zooplankton. J. Plankton Res. 12: 891–908.
Stoecker DK, Cucci TL, Hulburt EM & Yentsch cm (1986) Selective feeding by Balanion sp. (Ciliata, Balanionidae) on phytoplankton that best support its growth. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 95: 113–130.
Strom SL (2000) Bacterivory: interactions between bacteria and their grazers. In: Kirchman DL (Ed) Microbial Ecology of the Oceans (pp 351–386). Wiley-Liss, New York.
Sutherland IW (1977) Bacterial exopolysaccharides - their nature and production. In: Sutherland IW (Ed) Surface Carbohydrates of the Procaryotic Cell (pp 27–96). Academic Press, New York.
Suzuki MT (1999) Effect of protistan bacterivory on coastal bacterioplankton diversity. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 20: 261–272.
Taniguchi A & Takeda Y (1988) Feeding rate and behavior of the tintinnid ciliate Favella taraikaensis observed with a high speed VTR system. Mar. Microb. Food Webs 3: 21–34.
Thingstad T (2000) Control of bacterial growth in idealized food webs. In: Kirchman D (Ed) Microbial Ecology of the Oceans (pp 229–261). Wiley-Liss, New York.
Thingstad TF & Lignell R (1997) Theoretical models for the control of bacterial growth rate, abundance, diversity and carbon demand. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 13: 19–27.
Tollrian R & Harvell C (1999). The Ecology and Evolution of Inducible Defenses. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
van Donk E, Lürling M & Lampert W (1998) Consumer-induced changes in phytoplankton: Inducibility, costs, benefits, and the impact on grazers. In: Tollrian R & Harvell C (Eds) The Ecology and Evolution of Inducible Defenses (pp 89–103). Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Van Hannen EJ, Veninga M, Bloem J, Gons HJ & Laanbroek HJ (1999) Genetic changes in the bacterial community structure associated with protistan grazers. Arch. Hydrobiol. 145: 25–38.
Verhagen FJM, Duyts H & Laanbroek HJ (1993) Effects of grazing by flagellates on competition for ammonium between nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria in soil columns. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 2099–2106.
Verity PG (1991) Feeding in planktonic protozoans: Evidence for non-random acquisition of prey. J. Protozool. 38: 69–76.
Wagner M, Amann R, Kämpfer P, Assmus B, Hartmann A, Hutzler P, Springer N & Schleifer KH (1994) Identification and in situ detection of gram-negative filamentous bacteria in activated sludge. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 17: 405–417.
Weinbauer MG & Höfle MG (1998) Significance of viral lysis and flagellate grazing as factors controlling bacterioplankton production in a eutrophic lake. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 431–438.
Wickham SA (1995) Trophic relations between cyclopoid copepods and ciliated protists: Complex interactions link the microbial and classic food webs. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40: 1173–1181.
Wolfe GV (2000) The chemical defense ecology of marine unicellular plankton: constraints, mechanisms, and impacts. Biol. Bull. 198: 225–244.
Yamada T, Muramatsu N & Kondo T (1993) Phagocytosis of monosaccharide-binding latex particles by guinea-pig polymorphonuclear leucocytes. J. Biomat. Sci. Polymer Ed. 4: 347–355.
About this article
Cite this article
Jürgens, K., Matz, C. Predation as a shaping force for the phenotypic and genotypic composition of planktonic bacteria. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81, 413–434 (2002) doi:10.1023/A:1020505204959
- bacterial community structure
- phenotypic properties
- predator–prey interactions