Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 245, Issue 2, pp 223–232 | Cite as

Natural 15N abundances of maize and soil amended with urea and composted pig manure

  • Woo-Jung Choi
  • Sang-Mo Lee
  • Hee-Myong Ro
  • Kyoung-Cheol Kim
  • Sun-Ho Yoo
Article

Abstract

To investigate the effect of inorganic fertilizer and composted manure amendments on the N isotope composition (delta15N) of crop and soil, maize (Zea mays L.) was cultivated under greenhouse conditions for 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 days. Composted pig manure (delta15N= +13.9‰) and urea (-2.3‰) were applied at 0 and 0 kg N ha−1 (C0U0), 0 and 150 kg N ha−1 (C0U2), 150 and 0 kg N ha−1 (C2U0), and 75 and 75 kg N ha−1 (C1U1), respectively. The delta15N of total soil-N was not affected by both amendments, but delta15N of NH+4 and NO3 provided some information on the N isotope fractionation in soil. During the early growth stage, significant differences (P < 0.05) in delta15N among maize subjected to different treatments were observed. After 30 days of growth, the delta15N values of maize were +6.6‰ for C0U0, +1.1‰ for C0U2, +7.7‰ for C2U0, and +4.5‰ for C1U1. However, effects of urea and composted manure application on maize delta15N progressively decreased with increasing growth period, probably due to isotope fractionation accompanying N losses and increased uptake of soil-derived N by maize. After 70 days of growth, delta15N of leaves and grains of maize amended with composted pig manure were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those with urea. The temporal variations in delta15N of maize amended with urea and composted manure indicate that plant delta15N is generally not a good tracer for N sources applied to field. Our data can be used in validation of delta15N fractionation models in relation to N source inputs.

compost maize natural 15N abundance urea 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beauchamp E G 1986 Availability of nitrogen from three manures to maize in the field. Can. J. Soil Sci. 66, 713-720.Google Scholar
  2. Bergersen F J, Peoples M B and Turner G L 1988 Isotopic discriminations during the accumulation of nitrogen by soybeans. Aus. J. Plant Physiol. 15, 407-420.Google Scholar
  3. Beven K and Germann P 1982 Macropores and water flow in soils. Water Resour. Res. 18, 1311-1325.Google Scholar
  4. Blackmer A S and Bremner J M 1977 Nitrogen isotope discrimination in denitrification of nitrate in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 9, 73-77.Google Scholar
  5. Bloom A J 1988 Ammonium and nitrate as nitrogen sources for plant growth. ISI Altas of Sci. 1, 55-59.Google Scholar
  6. Bremer E, Gehlen H, Swerhone G D W and van Kessel C 1993 Assessment of reference crops for the quantification of N2 fixation using natural and enriched levels of 15N abundance. Soil Biol. Biochem. 25, 1197-1202.Google Scholar
  7. Cheng H H, Bremner J M and Edwards A P 1964 Variations in nitrogen-15 abundance in soils. Science 146, 1574-1575.Google Scholar
  8. Chien S H, Shearer G and Kohl D H 1977 The nitrogen isotope effect associated with nitrate and nitrite loss from waterlogged soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41, 63-69.Google Scholar
  9. Choi H L, Richard T L and Kim H T 1996 Composting high moisture materials: Bio-drying poultry manure in a sequentially fed reactor. Korean J. Anim. Sci. 38, 649-658.Google Scholar
  10. Choi W J, Jin S A, Lee S M, Ro H M and Yoo S H 2001 Corn uptake and microbial immobilization of 15N-labeled urea-N in soil as affected by composted pig manure. Plant Soil 235, 1-9.Google Scholar
  11. Delwiche C C and Steyn P L 1970 Nitrogen isotope fractionation in soils and microbial reactions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 4, 929-935.Google Scholar
  12. Ehleringer J R and Rundel P W 1988 Stable isotopes: history, units, and instrumentation. In Stable Isotopes in Ecological Research. Eds. P W Rundel et al., pp. 1-15 Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Eshetu Z and Högberg P 2000 Effects of land use on 15N natural abundance of soils in Ethiopian highlands. Plant Soil 222, 109-117.Google Scholar
  14. Evans R D 2001 Physiological mechanisms influencing plant nitrogen isotope composition. Trends Plant Sci. 6, 121-126.Google Scholar
  15. Evans R D, Bloom A J, Sukrapanna S S and Ehleringer J R 1996 Nitrogen isotope composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Cv. T-5) grown under ammonium or nitrate nutrition. Plant Cell Environ. 19, 1317-1323.Google Scholar
  16. Feast N A and Dennis P F 1996 A comparison of methods for nitrogen isotope analysis of groundwater. Chem. Geol. 129, 167-171.Google Scholar
  17. Fenn L B and Miyamoto S 1981 Ammonia loss and associated reactions of urea in calcareous soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45, 537-540.Google Scholar
  18. Feigin A, Shearer G, Kohl D H and Commoner B 1974 The amount and nitrogen-iS content of nitrate in soil profiles from two central Illinois fields in a con-soybean rotation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 38, 465-471.Google Scholar
  19. Firestone M K 1982 Biological denitrification. In Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils, Agronomy No. 22. Ed. F J Stevenson. pp. 289-326. ASA, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  20. Handley L L and Raven J A 1992 The use of natural abundance of nitrogen isotopes in plant physiology and ecology. Plant Cell Environ. 15, 965-985.Google Scholar
  21. Handley L L and Scrimgeour C M 1996 Terrestrial plant ecology and 15N natural abundance: The present limits to interpretation for uncultivated systems with original data from a Scottish old field. Adv. Ecol. Res. 27, 133-212.Google Scholar
  22. Hauck R D 1982 Nitrogen-isotope ratio analysis. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2: Chemical and Micorbiological Properties. Eds. A L Page et al. pp 735-779. ASA and SSSA, Madison and Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  23. Heaton T H E 1986 Isotopic studies of nitrogen pollution in the hydrosphere and atmosphere: a review. Chem. Geol. (Isotope Geoscience Section) 59, 87-102.Google Scholar
  24. Hodges R D 1991 Soil organic matter: Its central position in organic farming. In Advances in Soil Organic Matter Research: The Impact on Agriculture and The Environment. Ed. W S Wilson. pp 355-364. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Redwood Press, Wiltshire.Google Scholar
  25. Högberg P 1997 Tansley Review No.95 15N natural abundance in soil-plant systems. New Phytol. 137, 179-203.Google Scholar
  26. Högberg P and Johannison C 1993 15N abundance of forests is correlated with losses of nitrogen. Plant Soil 157, 147-150.Google Scholar
  27. Karamanos R E and Rennie D A 1981 The isotope composition of residual fertilizer nitrogen in soil columns. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45, 316-321.Google Scholar
  28. Keeney and Nelson 1982 Nitrogen-inorganic forms. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2: Chemical and Micorbiological Properties. Eds. A L Page et al. pp. 643-698. ASA and SSSA, Madison and Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  29. Kerley S J and Jarvis S C 1996 Preliminary studies of the impact of excreted N on cycling and uptake of N in pasture systems using natural abundance stable isotope discrimination. Plant Soil 178, 287-294.Google Scholar
  30. Klauer S F, Franceschi V R and Ku M S B 1991 Protein composition of mesophyll and paraveinal mesophyll of soybean leaves at various developmental stages. Plant Physiol. 97, 1306-1316.Google Scholar
  31. Kohl D H and Shearer G 1980 Isotopic fractionation associated with symbiotic N2 fixation and uptake of NO3- by plants. Plant Physiol. 66, 51-56.Google Scholar
  32. Kohl D H, Shearer G and Commoner B 1973 Variation in 15N in maize and soil following application of fertilizer nitrogen. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 37, 888-892.Google Scholar
  33. Kuzyakov Y, Friedel J K and Stalir K 2000 Review of mechanisms and quantification of priming effects. Soil Biol. Biochem. 32, 1485-1498.Google Scholar
  34. Limaux F, Recous S, Meynard J M and Guckert A 1999 Relationship between rate of crop growth at date of fertilizer N application and fate of fertilizer N applied to winter wheat. Plant Soil 214, 49-59.Google Scholar
  35. Mariotti A, Germon J C, Huber P, Kaiser P, Letolle R, Tardieux A and Tardieux P 1981 Experimental determination of nitrogen kinetic isotope fractionation: some principles; illustration for the denitrification and nitrification processes. Plant Soil 62, 423-430.Google Scholar
  36. Mariotti A, Mariotti F, Champigny M L, Amarger N and Moyse A 1982 Nitrogen isotope fractionation associated with nitrate reductase activity and uptake of NO3- by Pearl Millet. Plant Physiol. 69, 882-884.Google Scholar
  37. Millard P 1988 The accumulation and storage of nitrogen by herbaceous plants. Plant Cell Environ. 11, 1-8.Google Scholar
  38. Monaghan R and Barraclough D 1995 Contributions to gross N mineralization from 15N-labelled soil macroorganic matter fractions during laboratory incubation. Soil Biol. Biochent 27, 1623-1628.Google Scholar
  39. Nadelhoffer K J and Fry B 1994 Nitrogen isotope studies in forest ecosystems. In Stable Isotope in Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Eds. K Lajtha and R H Michener. pp. 23-44. Blackwell, MA.Google Scholar
  40. Nadelhoffer K J, Shaver G, Fry B, Giblin A, Johnson L and McKane R 1996 15N natural abundance and N use by tundra plants. Oecologia 107, 386-394.Google Scholar
  41. Papendick R I and Elliott L F 1984 Tillage and cropping systems for erosion control and efficient nutrient utilization. In Organic Farming: Current Technology and its Role in a Sustainable Agriculture. ASA Spec. Publ. 46. Eds. D F Bezdicek et al. pp. 69-81. ASA, CSSA and SSSA, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  42. Paul J W and Beauchamp E G 1993 Nitrogen availability for maize in soils amended with urea, cattle slurry, and solid and composted manures. Can. J. Soil Sci. 73, 253-266.Google Scholar
  43. Recous S, Fresneau C, Faurie G and Mary B 1988 The fate of labeled 15N urea and ammonium nitrate applied to a winter wheat crop: 1. Nitrogen transformations in the soil. Plant Soil 112, 205-214.Google Scholar
  44. Robinson D 2001 ?15N as an integrator of the nitrogen cycle. Trends Ecol. Evol. 16, 153-162.Google Scholar
  45. Robinson D, Handley L L and Scrimgeour C M 1998 A theory for 15N/14N fractionation in nitrate-grown vascular plants. Planta 205, 397-406.Google Scholar
  46. SAS Institute 1989 SAS/STAT user's guide. Version 6. 4th edn. Vol 2. SAS Inst., North Carolina.Google Scholar
  47. Shearer G and Kohl D H 1986 N2-fixation in field settings: Estimations based on natural 15N abundance. Aus. J. Plant Physiol. 13, 699-756.Google Scholar
  48. Shearer G, Kohl D H and Chien S H 1978 The nitrogen-iS abundance in a wide variety of soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42, 899-902.Google Scholar
  49. Shearer G and Legg J O 1975 Variations in the natural abundance of 15N of wheat plants in relation to fertilizer nitrogen applications. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 39, 896-901.Google Scholar
  50. Shipitalo M J, Edwards W M, Dick W A and Owens L B 1990 Initial storm effects on macropore transport of surface-applied chemicals in no-till soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 54, 1530-1536.Google Scholar
  51. Ta C T 1991 Nitrogen metabolism in the stalk tissue of maize. Plant Physiol. 97, 1375-1380.Google Scholar
  52. Turner G L, Bergersen F J and Tantala H 1983 Natural enrichment of 15N during decomposition of plant material in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 15, 495-497.Google Scholar
  53. Turner G L, Gault R R, Morthorpe L, Chase D L and Bergersen F J 1987 Differences in the natural abundance of 15N in the extractable mineral nitrogen of cropped and fallowed surface soils. Aus. J. Agric. Res. 38, 15-25.Google Scholar
  54. van Dam D and van Breemen N 1995 NICCE: a model for cycling of nitrogen and carbon isotopes in coniferous forest ecosystems. Ecol. Model. 79, 255-275.Google Scholar
  55. van Kessel C, Pennock D J and Farrell R E 1993 Seasonal variations in denitrification and nitrous oxide evolution at the landscape scale. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 57, 988-995.Google Scholar
  56. Weitz A M, Linder F, Frolking 5, Crill P M and Keller M 2001 N20 emissions from humid tropical agricultural soils: effects of soil moisture, texture and nitrogen availability. Soil Biol. Biochem. 33, 1077-1093.Google Scholar
  57. Wen G, Bates T E and Voroney R P 1995. Evaluation of nitrogen availability in irradiated sewage sludge, sludge compost, and manure compost. J. Environ. Qual. 24, 527-534.Google Scholar
  58. Yoneyama T and Kaneko A 1989 Variations in the natural abundance of 15N in nitrogenous fractions of komatsuna plants supplied with nitrate. Plant Cell Physiol. 30, 957-962.Google Scholar
  59. Yoneyama T, Kouno K and Yazaki J 1990 Variation of natural 15NN abundance of crops and soils in Japan with special reference to the effect of soil conditions and fertilizer application. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 36, 667-675.Google Scholar
  60. Yoneyama T, Omata T, Nakata S and Yazaki J 1991 Fractionation of nitrogen isotopes during the uptake and assimilation of ammonia by plants. Plant Cell Environ. 32, 1211-1217.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Woo-Jung Choi
    • 1
  • Sang-Mo Lee
    • 2
  • Hee-Myong Ro
    • 1
  • Kyoung-Cheol Kim
    • 1
  • Sun-Ho Yoo
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Agricultural Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesSeoul National UniversitySuwonKorea
  2. 2.National Instrumentation Center for Environmental Management, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesSeoul National UniversitySuwonKorea

Personalised recommendations