Advertisement

Wetlands Ecology and Management

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 313–322 | Cite as

The rise and fall of the mangrove forests in Maputo Bay, Mozambique

  • W.F. de Boer
Article

Abstract

The change in area of mangrove forests since 1958 in Maputo Bay,Mozambique was studied. Around Maputo, a 44% reduction of the area was linkedtodifferences in accessibility, the areas closest to Maputo suffering most. Butsurprisingly, large expansions of mangrove forest were also observed. Thisincrease in area (+ 13%) was accompanied by an increase in tree cover from55 to 70%. The overall effect of mangrove forest reduction and growth resultedin a mean decrease of only 8%. The causes of the increase in mangrove area onInhaca island are discussed, and two possible factors are suggested: a changeinsedimentation and an increase in temperature. Sandbanks have increased atInhacaIsland, but no data are available for the other areas. An increase in sea andair temperature has also been noted by other authors and could explain thegrowth of the forests, which are situated at the southernmost limit of theirnormal distribution.

Access Climate Encroachment Exploitation Management Sedimentation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Blasco F., Saenger P. and Janodet E. 1996. Mangroves as indicators of coastal change. Catena 27: 167–178.Google Scholar
  2. Bonham C.D. 1989. Measurements for Terrestrial Vegetation. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Clark R.L. and Guppy J.C. 1988. A transition from mangrove forest to freshwater wetland in the monsoon tropics of Australia. Journal of Biogeography 15: 665–684.Google Scholar
  4. Coates Palgrave K. 1981. Trees of Southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town.Google Scholar
  5. Coughanowr C.A., Ngoile M.N. and Lindén O. 1995. Coastal zone management in Eastern Africa including the Island States: a review of issues and initiatives. Ambio 24: 448–457.Google Scholar
  6. de Boer W.F. 2000. Mangrove and seagrass litter as inputs in an intertidal ecosystem. Aquatic Botany 66: 225–239.Google Scholar
  7. de Boer W.F. and Longamane F.A. 1996. The exploitation of intertidal food resources in Inhaca bay, Mozambique. Biological Conservation 78: 295–303.Google Scholar
  8. de Boer W.F., Rydberg L. and Saide V. 2000. The influence of tidal currents on an intertidal ecosystem at Inhaca Island, Mozambique. Hydrobiologia 428: 187–196.Google Scholar
  9. Ellison A.M. and Farnsworth E.J. 1996. Anthropogenic disturbance of Caribbean ecosystems: past impacts, present trends, and future predictions. Biotropica 28: 549–565.Google Scholar
  10. Emmerson W.D. and McGwynne L.E. 1991. Feeding and assimilation of mangrove leaves by the crab Sesarma meinerti de Man in relation to leaf-litter production in Mgazana, a warm-temperate southern African mangrove swamp. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 157: 41–53.Google Scholar
  11. Farnsworth E.J. and Ellison A.M. 1997. The global conservation status of mangroves. Ambio 26: 328–334.Google Scholar
  12. Furukawa K., Wolanski E. and Mueller H. 1997. Currents and sediment transport in mangrove forests. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 44: 301–310.Google Scholar
  13. Hart B.T. and Sly P.G. 1992. Sediment/Water Interaction. Developments in Hydrobiology 75. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  14. Hatton J.C. 1995. A Status Quo Assessment of the Coastal Zone, Mozambique. Phase 1: Ponta do Ouro-Xai-Xai. IUCN, Maputo.Google Scholar
  15. Hatton J.C. and Couto A.L. 1992. The effect of coastline changes on mangrove community structure, Portuguese Island, Mozambique. Hydrobiologia 247: 49–57.Google Scholar
  16. Hatziolos M., Lundin G.C. and Alm A. 1996. Africa: A Framework for Integrated Coastal Zone Management. World Bank, Washington.Google Scholar
  17. Hemminga M.A., Slim F.J., Kazungu J., Ganssen G.M., Nieuwenhuize J. and Kruyt N.M. 1994. Carbon outwelling from a mangrove forest with adjacent seagrass beds and coral reefs (Gazi Bay, Kenya). Marine Ecology Progress Series 106: 291–301.Google Scholar
  18. Jaccarini V. and Martens E. 1992. The Ecology of Mangrove and Related Ecosystems. Developments in Hydrobiology 80. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  19. Jose V.M. and Lagerlof J. Effects of slash-and-burn agriculture and residue management on soil macrofauna communities in coastal Mozambique. Zimbabwean Journal of Agricultural Research (in press).Google Scholar
  20. Kalk M. 1995. A Natural History of Inhaca Island. Witwatersrand University Press, Johannesburg.Google Scholar
  21. Lopes L.L. 1985. A Ilha da Inhaca; O Crescimento Populacional e o Impacto nas Condições Naturais. Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo.Google Scholar
  22. Lopes L.L. 1991. Ilha da Inhaca-Moçambique; Estimativas de Fecundidade e de Mortalidade a Partir dos Censos de 1980 e de 1985. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte.Google Scholar
  23. Lugo A.E. and Snedaker S.C. 1974. The ecology of mangroves. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 5: 39–64.Google Scholar
  24. Macnae W. and Kalk M. 1962. The ecology of the mangrove swamps at Inhaca Island, Moçambique. Journal of Ecology 50: 19–34.Google Scholar
  25. Ogden J.C. and Gladfelter E.H. 1983. Coral Reefs, Seagrass Beds and Mangroves: their Interaction in the Coastal Zones of the Caribbean. Unesco Reports in Marine Science 23. Unesco, Montevideo.Google Scholar
  26. Panapitukkul N., Duarte C.M., Thampanya U., Kheowvongsri P., Srichai N., Geertz-Hansen O. et al. 1998. Mangrove colonization: mangrove progression over the growing Pak Phanang (SE Thailand) mud flat. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 47: 51–61.Google Scholar
  27. Pechisso D.A.C. 1998. Gestão Comunitário de Recursos Florestias pela Comunidade de Ndelane em Machangulo, com Incidência no Mangal. Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo.Google Scholar
  28. Philip M.S. 1994. Measuring Trees and Forests. 2nd edn. CAB International, UK.Google Scholar
  29. Primavera J.H. 1998. Mangroves as nurseries: shrimp populations in mangrove and non-mangrove habitats. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 46: 457–464.Google Scholar
  30. Ruitenbeek H.J. 1994. Modelling economy-ecology linkages in mangroves: economic evidence for promoting conservation in Bintuni Bay, Indonesia. Ecological Economics 10: 233–247.Google Scholar
  31. Saenger P. and Snedaker S.C. 1993. Pantropical trends in mangrove above-ground biomass and annual litterfall. Oecologia 96: 293–299.Google Scholar
  32. Salm R. 1976. The dynamics and management of the Ponta Torres coral reef, Inhaca Island-Moçambique. Memórias do Instituto de Investigação Científica de Moçambique 12: 25–40.Google Scholar
  33. Schumann E.H., Cohen A.L. and Jury M.R. 1995. Coastal sea surface temperature variability along the south coast of South Africa and the relationship to regional and global climate. Journal of Marine Research 53: 231–248.Google Scholar
  34. Semesi A.K. 1992. Developing management plans for the mangrove forest reserves of mainland Tanzania. Hydrobiologia 247: 1–10.Google Scholar
  35. Semesi A.K. 1998. Mangrove management and utilization in Eastern Africa. Ambio 27: 620–626.Google Scholar
  36. Skilleter G.A. 1996. Validation of rapid assessment of damage in urban mangrove forests and relationships with molluscan assemblages. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 76: 701–716.Google Scholar
  37. Slim F.J., Gwada P.M., Kodjo M. and Hemminga M.A. 1996. Biomass and litterfal of Ceriops tagal and Rhizophora mucronata in the mangrove forest of Gazi Bay, Kenya. Marine and Freshwater Research 47: 999–1007.Google Scholar
  38. Slim F.J., Hemminga M.A., Ochieng C., Jannink N.T., de la Moriniére E.C. and van derVelde G. 1997. Leaf litter removal by the snail Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus) and sesarmid crabs in an East African mangrove forest (Gazi Bay, Kenya). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 215: 35–48.Google Scholar
  39. Tam N.F.Y., Wong Y.-S., Lu C.Y. and Berry R. 1997. Mapping and characterization of mangrove plant communities in Hong Kong. Hydrobiologia 352: 25–27.Google Scholar
  40. Terrados J., Thampanya U., Srichai N., Kheowvongsri P., Geertz-Hansen O., Boromthanarath S. et al. 1997. The effect of increased sediment accretion on the survival and growth of Rhizophora apiculata seedlings. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 45: 1–5.Google Scholar
  41. Tomlinson P.B. 1986. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  42. Twilley R.R., Pozo M., Garcia V.H., Rivera-Monroy V.H., Zambrano R. and Bodero A. 1997. Litter dynamics in riverine mangrove forests in the Guayas River estuary, Ecuador. Oecologia 111: 109–122.Google Scholar
  43. Wafar S., Untawale A.G. and Wafar M. 1997. Litter fall and energy flux in a mangrove ecosystem. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 44: 111–124.Google Scholar
  44. Walters B.B. 1995. Philippine coastal resources under stress. In: Junio-Meñes M.A. and Newkirk G.F. (eds), Philippine Coastal Resources under Stress. Coastal Resources Research Network, Halifax.Google Scholar
  45. Ward C.J., Steinke T.D. and Ward M.C. 1986. Mangroves of the Kosi system, South Africa: their re-establishment since a mass mortality in 1965/66. South African Journal of Botany 52: 501–512.Google Scholar
  46. Young B.M. and Harvey L.E. 1996. A spatial analysis of the relationship between mangrove (Avicennia marina var. australasica) physiognomy and sediment accretion in the Hauraki plains, New Zealand. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 42: 231–246.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • W.F. de Boer
    • 1
  1. 1.Tropical Nature Conservation and Vertebrate Ecology GroupWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations