Telecommunication Systems

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 35–63 | Cite as

Buffered and Unbuffered Leaky Bucket Policing: Guaranteeing QoS, Design and Admission Control

  • Natarajan Gautam


Traffic shaping and smoothing using buffers or leaky buckets does not necessarily improve Quality of Service (QoS). In fact there is a trade-off between controlling user traffic and guaranteeing QoS to the users. We consider the first two stages (source node and border node before entering a network cloud) of an end-to-end QoS problem and assume that the QoS requirements across each of the two stages are given. We formulate and solve a mathematical programming problem to select optimal leaky bucket parameters that would enable high-speed telecommunication network providers to optimize traffic policing subject to guaranteeing a negotiated Quality of Service requirement across the first stage namely the source end. We address both the buffered and unbuffered leaky bucket cases where using fluid models we characterize the output process from the leaky buckets for general traffic sources. Using the optimal leaky bucket parameters and output characteristics (effective bandwidths in particular), we solve design and connection admission control problems given QoS requirements at the second stage, namely the border node.

leaky bucket policing quality of service admission control traffic regulation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    V. Anantharam and T. Konstantopoulos, Optimality and interchangeability of leaky buckets, in: 32nd Allerton Conference, Monticello, IL, 1994, pp. 235-244.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    V. Anantharam and T. Konstantopoulos, A methodology for the design of optimal traffic shapers in communication networks, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 44(3) (1999) 583-586.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    D. Anick, D. Mitra and M.M. Sondhi, Stochastic theory of a data handling system with multiple sources, Bell System Technical Journal 61 (1982) 1871-1894.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    M. Butto, E. Cavallero and A. Tonietti, Effectiveness of the leaky bucket policing mechanism in ATM networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 9 (1991) 335-342.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    F. Callegati, G. Corazza and C. Raffaelli, On the dimensioning of the leaky bucket policing mecha-nism for multiplexer congestion avoidance, in: IEEE International Conf. on Information Engineering, Vol. 2, 1993, pp. 617-621.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    C.S. Chang and J.A. Thomas, Effective bandwidth in high-speed digital networks, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 13(6) (1995) 1091-1100.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    C.S. Chang and T. Zajik, Effective bandwidths of departure processes from queues with time varying capacities, in: INFOCOM'95, pp. 1001-1009.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    H. Chen and A. Mandelbaum, Discrete flow networks: Bottleneck analysis and fluid approximations, Mathematics of Operations Reserach 16(2) (1991) 408-446.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    H. Chen and D. D. Yao, A fluid model for systems with random disruptions, Operations Research 40 (Suppl. 2) (1992) S239-S247.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    H. Chen and D.D. Yao, Dynamic scheduling of a multiclass fluid network, Operations Research 41(6) (1993) 1104-1115.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    G.L. Choudhury, D.M. Lucantoni and W. Whitt, On the effectiveness of effective bandwidths for admission control in ATM networks, in: Proceedings of ITC-14 (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1994) pp. 411-420.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    I. Cidon and I.S. Gopal, Paris: An approach to integrated high-speed private networks, International Journal of Digital and Analog Cabled Systems 1(2) (1998).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    G. de Veciana, C. Courcoubetis and J. Walrand, Decoupling bandwidths for networks: A decomposition approach to resource management, in: INFOCOM'94, 1994, pp. 466-473.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    G. de Veciana, Leaky buckets and optimal self-tuning rate control, in: GLOBECOM'94, 1994, pp. 1207-1211.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    G. de Veciana, G. Kesidis and J. Walrand, Resource management in wide-area ATM networks using effective bandwidths, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 13(6) (1995) 1081-1090.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    A.I. Elwalid, D. Heyman, T.V. Lakshman, D. Mitra and A. Weiss, Fundamental bounds and approxi-mations for ATM multiplexers with applications to video teleconferencing, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 13(6) (1995) 1004-1016.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    A.I. Elwalid and D. Mitra, Analysis and design of rate-based congestion control of high speed networks, part I: Stochastic fluid models, access regulation, Queueing Systems 9 (1991) 29-64.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    A.I. Elwalid and D. Mitra, Effective bandwidth of general Markovian traffic sources and admission control of high-speed networks, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 1(3) (June 1993) 329-343.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    N. Gautam, V.G. Kulkarni, Z. Palmowski and T. Rolski, Bounds for fluid models driven by semi-Markov inputs, Probability in the Engineering and Informational Sciences 13 (1999) 429-475.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    R.J. Gibbens and P.J. Hunt, Effective bandwidths for the multi-type UAS channel, Queueing Systems 9 (1991) 17-28.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    C. Greif and G. Golub, Techniques for solving general KKT systems, Technical Report, SCCM, Stanford (2000).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    X. Gu, K. Sohraby and D.R. Vaman, Control and Performance in Packet, Circuit, and ATM Networks (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1995).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    L. Gün, V.G. Kulkarni and A. Narayanan, Bandwidth allocation and access control in high-speed networks, Annals of Operations Research 49 (1994) 161-183.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    J.M. Harrison, Brownian Motion and Stochastic Flow Systems (Wiley, New York, 1985).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    D. Holtsinger and H. Perros, Performance analysis of leaky bucket policing mechanisms, in: Proc. of Tricomm' 92, Raleigh, NC, 1992.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    G. Kesidis, J. Walrand and C.S. Chang, Effective bandwidths for multiclass Markov fluids and other ATM sources, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 1(4) (1993) 424-428.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    V.G. Kulkarni, Effective bandwidths for Markov regenerative sources, Queueing Systems 24 (1997).Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    V.G. Kulkarni, Fluid models for single buffer systems, in: Frontiers in Queueing, Probability Stochastics Series (CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 1997), pp. 321-338.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    V.G. Kulkarni and N. Gautam, Admission control of multi-class traffic with service priorities in high-speed networks, Queueing Systems 27 (1997) 79-97.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    A. Narayanan and V.G. Kulkarni, First passage times in fluid models with an application to two-priority fluid systems, in: Proc. of the IEEE Internat. Computer Performance and Dependability Symposium, 1996.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    T.J. Ott and J.G. Shanthikumar, Discrete storage processes and their poisson flow and fluid flow approximations, Queueing Systems 24 (1997) 101-136.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Z. Palmowski and T. Rolski, The superposition of alternating on-off flows and a fluid model, Report No. 82, Mathematical Institute, Wrocław University (June 1996).Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    K. Sohraby and M. Sidi, On the performance of bursty and modulated sources subject to leaky bucket rate-based access control schemes, IEEE Transactions on Communications 42(2-4) (1994).Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    S. Vamvakos and V. Anantharam, On the departure process of a leaky bucket system with long-range dependent input traffic, Queueing Systems 28(1-3) (1998).Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    G. Wu and J.W. Mark, Discrete time analysis of leaky bucket congestion control, in: Proc. of ICC' 92, 1992.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    N. Yin and M.G. Hluckyj, Analysis of the leaky bucket algorithm for on-off data sources, Journal of High Speed Networks 2(1) 81-98.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natarajan Gautam
    • 1
  1. 1.Harold and Inge Marcus Department of Industrial and Manufacturing EngineeringThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations