Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 13, Issue 8, pp 765–775 | Cite as

A pooled analysis of case–control studies of thyroid cancer. VII. Cruciferous and other vegetables (International)

  • Cristina Bosetti
  • Eva Negri
  • Laurence Kolonel
  • Elaine Ron
  • Silvia Franceschi
  • Susan Preston-Martin
  • Anne McTiernan
  • Luigino Dal Maso
  • Steven D. Mark
  • Kiyoiko Mabuchi
  • Charles Land
  • Fan Jin
  • Gun Wingren
  • Maria Rosaria Galanti
  • Arne Hallquist
  • Eystein Glattre
  • Eiliv Lund
  • Fabio Levi
  • Dimitrios Linos
  • Carlo La Vecchia


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between cruciferous and other vegetables and thyroid cancer risk we systematically reanalyzed the original data from 11 case–control studies conducted in the US, Asia, and Europe.

METHODS: A total of 2241 cases (1784 women, 457 men) and 3716 controls (2744 women, 972 men) were included. Odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for each study by logistic regression models, conditioned on age and sex, and adjusted for history of goiter, thyroid nodules or adenomas, and radiation. Summary ORs for all studies combined were computed as the weighted average of the estimates from each study.

RESULTS: A decreased risk for the highest level of cruciferous vegetable intake, as compared to the lowest, was observed in Los Angeles, Hawaii, Connecticut, southeastern Sweden, Tromsø, and Switzerland; the OR were above unity in Japan and Uppsala, whereas no material association was found in northern Sweden, Italy, or Greece. The OR values for all studies combined were 0.87 (95% CI 0.75–1.01) for moderate and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80–1.10) for high cruciferous vegetables intake. The results were similar in studies from iodine-rich areas and endemic goiter areas, and were consistent when the analysis was restricted to papillary carcinomas and women. The summary OR values for vegetables other than cruciferous were 1.04 (0.88–1.22) for moderate and 0.82 (0.69–0.98) for high consumption.

CONCLUSIONS: This combined analysis indicates that cruciferous vegetables are not positively related to thyroid cancer risk. Their effect does not seem to be substantially different from that of other vegetables, which appear to be protective on this cancer.

case–control studies diet meta-analysis pooled analysis thyroid cancer vegetables 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Bosetti
    • 1
  • Eva Negri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Laurence Kolonel
    • 3
  • Elaine Ron
    • 4
    • 4
  • Silvia Franceschi
    • 5
  • Susan Preston-Martin
    • 6
  • Anne McTiernan
    • 7
  • Luigino Dal Maso
    • 8
  • Steven D. Mark
    • 4
  • Kiyoiko Mabuchi
    • 9
  • Charles Land
    • 4
    • 9
  • Fan Jin
    • 10
  • Gun Wingren
    • 11
  • Maria Rosaria Galanti
    • 12
  • Arne Hallquist
    • 13
  • Eystein Glattre
    • 14
  • Eiliv Lund
    • 15
  • Fabio Levi
    • 16
  • Dimitrios Linos
    • 17
  • Carlo La Vecchia
    • 1
    • 18
  1. 1.Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”MilanItaly
  2. 2.Laboratory of General EpidemiologyIstituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “MilanItaly
  3. 3.Cancer Research Center of HawaiiUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA
  4. 4.Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer InstituteRockvilleUSA
  5. 5.Field and Intervention Studies UnitInternational Agency for Research on CancerLyon Cedex 08France
  6. 6.Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  7. 7.Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  8. 8.Centro di Riferimento OncologicoAvianoItaly
  9. 9.Radiation Effects Research FoundationHiroshimaJapan
  10. 10.Shanghai Cancer InstituteShanghaiPeople's Republic of China, China
  11. 11.Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Health and Environment, Faculty of Health SciencesLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  12. 12.Department of Cancer EpidemiologyUniversity HospitalUppsalaSweden
  13. 13.Department of OncologyKarolinska Institute and Stockholms SjukhemStockholmSweden
  14. 14.Cancer Registry of Norway, MontebelloOsloNorway
  15. 15.Institute of Community MedicineUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway
  16. 16.Registre Vaudois des TumeursInstitut universitaire de mèdecine sociale et prèventiveLausanneSwitzerland
  17. 17.Institute of Preventive MedicineKifissiaGreece
  18. 18.Istituto di Statistica Medica e BiometriaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly

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