Advertisement

Secure Agents

  • Piero A. Bonatti
  • Sarit Kraus
  • V.S. Subrahmanian
Article

Abstract

With the rapid proliferation of software agents, there comes an increased need for agents to ensure that they do not provide data and/or services to unauthorized users. We first develop an abstract definition of what it means for an agent to preserve data/action security. Most often, this requires an agent to have knowledge that is impossible to acquire – hence, we then develop approximate security checks that take into account, the fact that an agent usually has incomplete/approximate beliefs about other agents. We develop two types of security checks – static ones that can be checked prior to deploying the agent, and dynamic ones that are executed at run time. We prove that a number of these problems are undecidable, but under certain conditions, they are decidable and (our definition of) security can be guaranteed. Finally, we propose a language within which the developer of an agent can specify her security needs, and present provably correct algorithms for static/dynamic security verification.

Keywords

Neural Network Artificial Intelligence Complex System Nonlinear Dynamics Abstract Definition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Y. Arens, C.Y. Chee, C.-N. Hsu and C. Knoblock, Retrieving and integrating data from multiple information sources, International Journal of Intelligent Cooperative Information Systems 2(2) (1993) 127–158.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    K. Arisha, F. Ozcan, R. Ross, V.S. Subrahmanian, T. Eiter and S. Kraus, IMPACT: a platform for collaborating agents, IEEE Intelligent Systems 14 (1999) 64–72.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    F. Bergadano, A. Puliafito, S. Riccobene and G. Ruffo, Java-based and secure learning agents for information retrieval in distributed systems, Information Sciences 113(1–2) (1999) 55–84.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    S. Berkovits, J. Guttman and V. Swarup, Authentication for mobile agents, in: Mobile Agents and Security, ed. G. Vigna, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1419 (Springer, New York, 1998) pp. 114–136.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    E. Bertino, C. Bettini, E. Ferrari and P. Samarati, A temporal access control mechanism for database systems, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 8(1) (1996) 67–80.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    E. Bertino, P. Samarati and S. Jajodia, Authorizations in relational database management systems, in: Proc. of the 1st ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security, Fairfax, VA (November 1993).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    P. Bieber and F. Cuppens, A definition of secure dependencies using the logic of security, in: Proc. of the Computer Security Foundations Workshop IV (IEEE Computer Society Press, 1991).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    E.J. Bina, R.M. McCool, V.E. Jones and M. Winslett, Secure access to data over the Internet, in: Proc. of the Third International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Information Systems (PDIS 94), Austin, TX (IEEE-CS Press, 1994) pp. 99–102.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    P. Bonatti, S. Kraus, J. Salinas and V.S. Subrahmanian, Data security in heterogenous agent systems, in: Cooperative Information Agents, ed. M. Klusch (Springer, New York, 1998) pp. 290–305.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    P. Bonatti, S. Kraus and V.S. Subrahmanian, Foundations of secure deductive databases, IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 7(3) (1995) 406–422.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    R. Campbell and T. Qian, Dynamic agent-based security architecture for mobile computers, in: The Second International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Networks (PDCN'98), Australia (December 1998).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    S. Castano, M.G. Fugini, G. Martella and P. Samarati, Database Security (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1995).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    R.G.G. Cattell, ed., The Object Database Standard: ODMG-93 (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1994).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    B.F. Chellas, Modal Logic (Cambridge University Press, 1980).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    D.M. Chess, Security in agents systems (1996). Available at http://www.av.ibm.com/InsideTheLab/Bookshelf/ScientificPapers/.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    D.M. Chess, Security issues in mobile code systems, in: Mobile Agents and Security, ed. G. Vigna, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1419 (Springer, New York, 1998) pp. 1–4.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    M. Crosbie and E. Spafford, Applying genetic programming to intrusion detection, in: Proc. of the AAAI 1995 Fall, Symposium Series (November 1995).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    F. Cuppens, A modal logic framework to solve aggregation problems, in: Database Security, 5. Status and Prospects, eds. S. Jajodia and C. Landwehr (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1992).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    T. Eiter and V.S. Subrahmanian, Heterogeneous active agents, II. Algorithms and complexity, Artificial Intelligence 108(1–2) (1999) 257–307.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    T. Eiter, V.S. Subrahmanian and G. Pick, Heterogeneous active agents, I. Semantics, Artificial Intelligence 108(1–2) (1999) 179–255.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    O. Etzioni and D. Weld, A softbot-based interface to the Internet, Communications of the ACM 37(7) (1994) 72–76.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    W.M. Farmer, J.D. Guttag and V. Swarup, Security for mobile agents: authentification and state appraisal, in: Proceedings of the Fourth ESORICS, eds. E. Bertino, H. Kurth, G. Martella and E. Montolivo, Rome, Italy, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1146 (Springer, New York, 1996) pp. 118–130.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    L.N. Foner A security architecture for multi-agent matchmaking, in: Second International Conference on Multi-Agent Systems (ICMAS96), Japan (1996).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    S. Fritzinger and M. Mueller, Java security (1996). Available at http://java.sun.com/docs/white/index.html.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    R. Gray, D. Kotz, G. Cybenko and D. Rus, D'Agents: security in multiple-language, mobile-agent system, in: Mobile agents and security, ed. G. Vigna, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1419 (Springer, New York, 1998) pp. 154–187.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Q. He, K.P. Sycara and T.W. Finin, Personal security agent: KQML-based PKI, in: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Autonomous Agents (AGENTS-98), New York, eds. K.P. Sycara and M. Wooldridge (ACM Press, 1998) pp. 377–384.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    N. Heintze and J.D. Tygar, A model for secure protocols and their compositions, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 22(1) (1996) 16–30.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    F. Hohl, An approach to solve the problem of malicious hosts in mobile agent systems (1997). Available at http://inf.informatik.uni-stuttgart.de:80/ipvr/vs/mitarbeiter/hohlfz.engl.html.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    M. Hughes, Application and enterprise security with the JAVATM 2 platform (1998). Available at http://java.sun.com/events/jbe/98/features/security.html.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    M. Huhns and M. Singh (eds.), Readings in Agents (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1997).Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    S. Jajodia and R. Sandhu, Toward a multilevel relational data model, in: Proc. of ACM SIGMOD Conference on Management of Data, Denver, CO (May 1991).Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    N.R. Jennings, Controlling cooperative problem solving in industrial multi-agent systems using joint intentions, Artificial Intelligence 75(2) (1995) 1–46.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    R. Koblick, Concordia, Communications of the ACM 42(3) (1999) 96–97.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    S. Kraus, Negotiation and cooperation in multi-agent environments, Artificial Intelligence, Special Issue on Economic Principles of Multi-Agent Systems 94(1–2) (1997) 79–98.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Y. Labrou and T. Finin, A semantics approach for KQML – a general purpose communications language for software agents, in: Proc. of the International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (1994) pp. 447–455.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Y. Labrou and T. Finin, Semantics for an agent communication language, in: International Workshop on Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages, Providence, RI (1997) pp. 199–203.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    J.W. Lloyd, Foundations of Logic Programming (Springer, Berlin, 1984, 1987).Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    E. Lupu and M. Sloman, Towards a role-based framework for distributed systems management, Journal of Network and Systems Management 5(1) (1997) 5–30.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    E.C. Lupu and M.S. Sloman, Reconciling role based management and role based access control, in: Second Role Based Access Control Workshop (RBAC'97) (George Mason University, Virginia, 1997) pp. 135–141.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    P. Maes, Agents that reduce work and information overload, Communications of the ACM 37(7) (1994) 31–40.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    J. Millen and T. Lunt, Security for object-oriented database systems, in: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Research in Security and Privacy, Oakland, CA (May 1992).Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    B. Moulin and B. Chaib-Draa, An overview of distributed artificial intelligence, in: Foundations of Distributed Artificial Intelligence, eds. G.M.P. O'Hare and N.R. Jennings (Wiley, New York, 1996) pp. 3–55.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    G.C. Necula and P. Lee, Research on proof-carrying code on mobile-code security, in: Proceedings of the Workshop on Foundations of Mobile Code Security (1997). Available at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~necula/pcc.html.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    T. Nishigaya, Design of multi-agent programming libraries for Java (1997). Available at http://www.fujitsu.co.jp/hypertext/free/kafka/paper.Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    OMG, CORBAServices: common services specification, Technical Report 98-12-09, OMG (December 1998). Available at http://www.omg.org/.Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    J.S. Rosenschein and G. Zlotkin, Rules of Encounter: Designing Conventions for Automated Negotiation Among Computers (MIT Press, Boston, MA, 1994).Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    T. Sander and C. Tschudin, Protecting mobile agents against malicious hosts, in: Mobile agents and security, ed. G. Vigna, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1419 (Springer, New York, 1998) pp. 44–60.Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    H.J. Schumacher and S. Ghosh, A fundamental framework for network security, Journal of Network and Computer Applications 20(3) (1997) 305–322.Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    J. Siegal, CORBA Fundamentals and Programming (Wiley, New York, 1996).Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    S.O. Soueina, B.H. Far, T. Katsube and Z. Koono, MALL: a multi-agent learning language for competitive and uncertain environments, IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems 12 (1998) 1339–1349.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    W. Stallings, Title Network and Internetwork Security: Principles and Practice (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995).Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    V.S. Subrahmanian, Amalgamating knowledge bases, ACM Transactions on Database Systems 19(2) (1994) 291–331.Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    V.S. Subrahmanian, P. Bonatti, J. Dix, T. Eiter, S. Kraus, F. Ozcan and R. Ross, Heterogeneous Agent Systems: Theory and Implementation (MIT Press, MA, 2000) (to appear).Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    H. Tai and K. Kosaka, The aglets project, Communications of the ACM 42(3) (1999) 100–101.Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    Z. Tari, Using agents for secure access to data in the Internet, IEEE Communications Magazine 35(6) (1997) 136–140.Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    A. Tarski, Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics (Hackett Publishing Company, 1981).Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    C. Thirunavukkarasu, T. Finin and J. Mayfield, Secret agents – a security architecture for the KQML agent communication language, in: Intelligent Information Agents Workshop, Fourth International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management CIKM'95, Baltimore, MD (November 1995).Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    G. Vigna, Cryptographic traces for mobile agents, in: Mobile Agents and Security, ed. G. Vigna, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1419 (Springer, New York, 1998) pp. 137–153.Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    G. Vigna (ed.), Mobile Agents and Security, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1419 (Springer, New York, 1998).Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    M. Wellman, A market-oriented programming environment and its application to distributed multicommodity flow problems, Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 1 (1993) 1–23.Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    G. Wiederhold, Intelligent integration of information, in: Proceedings of ACM SIGMOD Conference on Management of Data (Washington, DC, 1993) pp. 434–437.Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    M. Winslett, K. Smith and X. Qian, Formal query languages for secure relational databases, ACM Transactions on Database Systems 19(4) (1994) 626–662.Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    M. Wooldridge and N.R. Jennings, Intelligent agents: theory and practice, Knowledge Engineering Reviews 10(2) (1995).Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    N. Yialelis, E. Lupu and M. Sloman, Role-based security for distributed object systems, in: IEEE WET-ICE, Stanford (1996).Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    M. Zapf, H. Mueller and K. Geihs, Security requirements for mobile agents in electronic markets, in: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1402 (Springer, New York, 1998) pp. 205–217.Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    L. Zeng and H. Wang, Towards a multi-agent security system: a conceptual model for Internet security, in: Proceedings of Fourth AIS (Association for Information Systems) Conference, Baltimore, MD (August 1998).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Piero A. Bonatti
    • 1
  • Sarit Kraus
    • 2
    • 3
  • V.S. Subrahmanian
    • 4
  1. 1.Dipartimento di InformaticaUniversità di MilanoCremaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Mathematics and Computer ScienceBar-Ilan UniversityRamat GanIsrael
  3. 3.Institute for Advanced Computer StudiesUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  4. 4.Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, Institute for Systems Research and Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations