Biometals

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 397–410 | Cite as

Cadmium biomonitoring and renal dysfunction among a population environmentally exposed to cadmium from smelting in China (ChinaCad)

  • Taiyi Jin
  • Monica Nordberg
  • Wolfgang Frech
  • Xavier Dumont
  • Alfred Bernard
  • Ting-ting Ye
  • Qinghu Kong
  • Zaijuan Wang
  • Pingjian Li
  • Nils-Göran Lundström
  • Yadong Li
  • Gunnar F. Nordberg

Abstract

Cadmium, an environmental pollutant, can have adverse effects on the human body. The kidney is the critical organ. In order to improve the understanding of the dose-response relationship between cadmium exposure and health effects, and especially renal dysfunction, a study on a general population group in China was performed. This study was therefore concerned with cadmium exposure biomarkers, such as the concentrations in blood (BCd) and urine (UCd), and effect biomarkers of renal dysfunction, such as β2-microglobulin (β2m), retinol binding protein (RBP) and albumin (ALB). To improve the evaluation of exposure levels in relation to the adverse health effects of cadmium exposure in the general population, a quality control program was conducted to determine analytical quality in the determination of cadmium in blood and urine and for β2m, creatinine, ALB and RBP. The measurements showed that analytical quality was adequate. The exposure and effect biomarkers were studied in the population groups living in three areas, namely a control area and two Cd polluted areas. In the highly exposed area, most of the BCd values were higher than 5 μg/l and most of the UCd values were higher than 5 μg/g creatinine. β2-microglobulin, retinol binding protein, and albumin in urine were all significantly higher in the population living in the heavily polluted area than in that in the control area. Based on data from all three areas, a marked dose-response relationship between UCd or BCd and the prevalence of renal dysfunction was demonstrated. The number of abnormalities in kidney was related to the level of cadmium exposure. Only one index of renal tubular dysfunction was affected in subjects exposed to low levels of cadmium, but more than two indices of renal function were affected in those exposed to high levels.

analyses biomarkers cadmium China creatinine human health quality control renal tubular dysfunction toxicology ALB β2RBP 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taiyi Jin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Monica Nordberg
    • 3
  • Wolfgang Frech
    • 4
  • Xavier Dumont
    • 5
  • Alfred Bernard
    • 5
  • Ting-ting Ye
    • 6
  • Qinghu Kong
    • 7
  • Zaijuan Wang
    • 7
  • Pingjian Li
    • 8
  • Nils-Göran Lundström
    • 1
  • Yadong Li
    • 2
  • Gunnar F. Nordberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit of Environmental MedicineUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental Health and EngineeringChinese Academy of Preventive MedicineBeijingPR China
  3. 3.Institute of Environmental MedicineKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Department of Analytical ChemistryUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  5. 5.Université Catholique de LouvainBrusselsBelgium
  6. 6.Department of Preventive MedicineSchool of Public HealthBelgium
  7. 7.Institute of Environmental HealthZhejiang Academy of Medical ScienceHangzhouChina
  8. 8.Department of Occupational HealthShanghai Medical University, ShanghaiShanghaiPR China

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