Advertisement

Virus Genes

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 23–34 | Cite as

Emergence of a New Strain of Type O Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: Its Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Relationship with the PanAsia Pandemic Strain

  • Divakar Hemadri
  • Chakradhar Tosh
  • Aniket Sanyal
  • Ramamurthy Venkataramanan
Article

Abstract

In India, Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O has been associated with more than 75% of the outbreaks. Previous studies with this serotype have indicated that the viruses circulating in India belong to a single genotype. Recent (February 2001) FMD epidemics in Europe have focussed global attention on the source of the virus and have been traced to a strain, PanAsia (serotype O), which is present in India since 1990. In this study, to further characterize the isolates belonging to the PanAsian strain, we sequenced the complete VP1-encoding (1D) gene for 71 FMDV serotype O isolates from India recovered from the field outbreaks during the last 4 decades (1962–2001). All the isolates in the tree were distributed in to three major branches (designated as A, B and C); the branch C is further divided into four groups (I–IV), of which the group IV belongs to the PanAsia strain. Furthermore, we show that the PanAsia strain has been circulating endemically since 1982 (not 1990 as reported earlier) and has been the most dominant outbreak strain in the recent years and distributed at least in 17 states of the country. During the year 2001, another new group (group III) of virus with genetic divergence of 5.4–11.1% at nucleotide level from the PanAsia strain is found to co-circulate endemically, and is slowly replacing it. At amino acid level this strain differed from PanAsia strain at five amino acid positions in the VP1. Although these strains are divergent at nucleotide level, they maintained a good antigenic relationship with one of the vaccine strains (IND R2/75) widely used in the country. Given the ability of the PanAsia virus to persist, spread and to outcompete other strains, the present trend could be of serious concern as the newly emerging virus is replacing it. If this is true, then there is another equally divergent strain as PanAsia that may pose a serious threat to the global dairy and meat industries.

FMDV PanAsia serotype O 1D gene 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Pereira H.G., Dev Biol Stand 35, 167–174, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Samuel A.R. and Knowles N.J., J Gen Virol 82, 609–621, 2001.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sangare O., Bastos A.D.S., Marquardt O., Venter E.H., Vosloo W., and Thomson G.R., Virus Genes 22, 345–351, 2001.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Domingo E., Martinez-Salas E., Sobrino F., de la Torre J.C., Portela A., Ortin J., Lopez-Galindez C., Perez-Brena P., Villnuera N., Najera R., Vande Pol S., Steinhauer D., De Polo N., and Holland J.J., Gene 40, 1–8, 1985.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Holland J.J., Spindler K., Horodyski F., Grabau E., Nichol S., and Vandepol S., Science 215, 1577–1585, 1982.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gonzalez M.J., Saiz J.C., Laor O., and Moore D.M., J Virol 65, 3949–3953, 1991.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Martinez M.A., Carillo C., Gonzalez-Candelas F., Moya A., Domingo E., and Sobrino F., J Virol 65, 3954–3957, 1991.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mateu M.G., Rocha E., Vicente O., Vayreda F., Navalpotro C., Andreu D., Pedroso E., Giralt E., Emjuanes L., and Domingo E., Virus Res 8, 261–274, 1987.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Martinez M.A., Carillo C., Plana J., Mascarella R., Bergada J., Palma E.L., Domingo E., and Sobrino F., Gene 62, 75–84, 1988.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beck E. and Strohmaier K., J Virol 61, 1621–1629, 1987.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Knowles N.J., Marquardt O., and Samuel A.R., Rpt Sess Res Gp Tech Comm Eur Comm Control of FMD, Prague, Czechoslovakia (FAO), Rome, pp. 149–154, 1988.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carillo C., Dopazo J., Moya A., Gonzalez M., Martinez M.A., Saiz J.C., and Sobrino F., Virus Res 15, 45–56, 1990.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martinez M.A., Dopazo J., Hernandez J., Mateu M.J., Sobrino F., Domingo E., and Knowles N.J., J Virol 66, 3557–3565, 1992.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vosloo W., Knowles N.J., and Thomson G.R., Epidemiol Infect 109, 547–558, 1992.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saiz J., Sobrino F., and Dopazo J., J Gen Virol 74, 2281–2285, 1993.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ansell D.M., Samuel A.R., Carpenter W.C., and Knowles N.J., Epidemiol Infect 112, 213–224, 1994.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stram Y., Chai D., Fawzy H., Molad T., Meiri N., Van-Ham M., El-Kilani S., Fahamy F., Moussa A., and Yadin H., Arch Virol 140, 1791–1797, 1995.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Samuel A.R., Knowles N.J., Kitching R.P., and Hafez S.M., Epidemiol Infect 119, 381–389, 1997.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pattnaik B., Venkataramanan R., Tosh C., Sanyal A., Hemadri D., Samuel A.R., Knowles N.J., and Kitching R.P., Virus Res 55, 115–127, 1998.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Samuel A.R., Knowles N.J., and Mackay D.K.J., Epidemiol Infect 122, 529–538, 1999.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Marquardt O., Rahman M.M., and Freiberg B., Arch Virol 145, 149–157, 2000.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hemadri D., Tosh C., Venkataramanan R., Sanyal A., Samuel A.R., Knowles N.J., and Kitching R.P., Epidemiol Infect 125, 729–736, 2000.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gurumurthy CB, Sanyal A, Venkataramanan R, Tosh C, George M, and Hemadri D, Arch Virol, 147, 85–102, 2002.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nayak B., Pattnaik B., Tosh C., Sanyal A., Hemadri D. Patil S., and Venkataramanan R., Acta Virol 45, 13–21, 2001.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Knowles N.J., Samuel A.R., Davies P.R., Kitching R.P., and Donaldson A.I., Vet Rec 148, 258–259, 2001.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Knowles N.J., Samuel A.R., Davies P.R., Kitching R.P., Venkataramanan R., Kanno T., Scherbakov A.V., Drygin V.V., Zhao Q.-Z., and Xie Q.-G., Rpt Sess Res Gp Tech Comm Eur Comm Control of FMD, Borovets, Bulgaria (FAO), Rome. pp. 20–31, 2000.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Anon., Annual reports of the Project directorate on FMD Mukteswar, Nainital, Uttaranchal, 1997–2001.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Knowles N.J. and Samuel A.R., Rpt Sess Res Gp Tech Comm Eur Comm Control of FMD, Vienna, Austria, (FAO), Rome. pp. 45–53, 1995.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thompson J.D., Higgins D.G., and Gibson T.J., Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680, 1994.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Felsenstein J., PHYLIP Version 3.5c. Department of Genetics, University of Washington Seattle, 1993.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Page R.D.M., Comp Appl Biosci 12, 357–358, 1996.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rozas J. and Rozas R., Bioinformatics 15, 174–175, 1999.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nei M. and Gojobori T., Mol Biol Evol 3, 418–426, 1986.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Muthuchelvan D, Venkataramanan R, Hemadri D, Sanyal A, and Tosh C, Acta Virol, 45, 159–167, 2001.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kimura M., 1983 Cambridge University Press Cambridge, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gebauer F., de La Torre J.C., Gomes I., Mateu M.G., Barahona H., Tiraboschi B., Bergmann I., Auge de Mello P., and Domingo E., J Virol 62, 2041–2049, 1988.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Xie Q.C., McCahon D., Crowther J.R., Belsham G.J., and McCullough K.C., J Gen Virol 68, 1637–1647, 1987.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    McCahon D., Crowther J.R., Belsham G.J., Kitson J.D.A., Duchesne M., Have P., Meloen R.H., Morgan D.O., and De Simone F., J Gen Virol 70, 639–645, 1989.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kitson J.D.A., McCahon D., and Belsham G.J., Virology 179, 26–34, 1990.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Crowther J.R., Farias S., Carpenter W.C., and Samuel A.R., J Gen Virol 74, 1547–1553, 1993.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Barnett P.V., Samuel A.R., Pullen L., Ansell D., Butcher R.N., and Parkhouse R.M.E., J Gen Virol 79, 1687–1697, 1998.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Aktas S. and Samuel A.R., Rev sci tech Off int Epiz 19, 744–753, 2000.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Martin M.J., Nunez J.I., Sobrino F., and Dopazo J., J Virol Meth 74, 215–221, 1998.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rojas E.R., Carillo E., Schiappacassi M., and Campos R., J Virol 66, 3368–3372, 1992.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Haydon D.T., Bastos A.D., Knowles N.J., and Samuel A.R., Genetics 157, 7–15, 2001.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ouldridge E.J., Barnett P.V., Hingley P., Head M., and Rweyemamu M.M., Curr Top Vet Med Anim Sci 22, 152–160, 1982.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Divakar Hemadri
    • 1
  • Chakradhar Tosh
    • 1
  • Aniket Sanyal
    • 1
  • Ramamurthy Venkataramanan
    • 1
  1. 1.Project Directorate on Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseIndian Veterinary Research Institute CampusUttaranchalIndia

Personalised recommendations