Tribology Letters

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 209–218 | Cite as

Study of the Chemistry of Films Generated from Phosphate Ester Additives on 52100 Steel Using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

  • M.N. Najman
  • M. Kasrai
  • G.M. Bancroft
  • A. Miller


X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) has been used to investigate the chemistry and thickness of thermal and antiwear (AW) films generated on steel from oil solutions containing phosphate ester additives. DPP, a diaryl phosphate, reacted with steel to form a thermal phosphate film at lower temperatures than TPP, a triaryl phosphate and Irgalube 349, an amine phosphate. This phosphate film formation at lower temperatures resulted in better wear protection to the metal in tribochemical experiments, as indicated by a smaller wear-scar measurement for oil solutions containing the DPP additive. For TPP, a brief period of wear to the metal was necessary to initiate the tribochemical reaction between the additive and substrate. Once the tribochemical reaction begins, TPP is able to generate a tribochemical film of relatively the same thickness and chemistry as DPP. Irgalube 349 generated the thickest thermal films at temperatures greater than 150 °C, significantly thicker than any of the films generated from DPP and TPP. The substantial difference in thickness is believed to be due to the availability of alkyl/ammonium cations which enables continued growth of the phosphate film.

phosphate ester antiwear tribochemistry film thickness XANES spectroscopy 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • M.N. Najman
    • 1
  • M. Kasrai
    • 1
  • G.M. Bancroft
    • 2
  • A. Miller
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  2. 2.Imperial Oil Products DivisionSarnia Research CenterSarniaCanada

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