Amendment-Induced Immobilization of Lead in a Lead-Spiked Soil: Evidence from Phytotoxicity Studies
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Lead immobilization was evaluated on soils spiked with increasingconcentrations of Pb (as Pb-acetate) using the following soilamendments: bentonite, zeolite, cyclonic ash, compost, lime,steelshot, and hydroxyapatite. The immobilization efficacy of theamendments was evaluated according to the following criteria:Ca(NO3)2-extractable Pb as an indicator of Pbphytoavailability, morphological and enzymatic parameters of beanplants (Phaseolus vulgaris) as indicator of phytotoxicity, and Pb concentration in edible tissue of lettuce (Lactuca sativa). The lowest reductions in Ca(NO3)2-extractablesoil Pb occurred when bentonite and steelshot were applied. Phytotoxicity from application of steelshot was confounded by toxic amounts of Fe and Mn released from the by-product which killed the lettuce seedlings. Addition of zeolite induced poorplant growth independent of Pb concentration due to its adverseeffect on soil structure. Substantial reductions in Ca(NO3)2-extractable Pb were observed when cyclonic ash, lime, compost and hydroxyapatite were applied. In general,these amendments reduced Pb phytotoxicity concomitant with reduced Pb concentration in lettuce tissue. Cyclonic ash, limeand compost further improved plant growth and reduced oxidativestress at low soil Pb concentrations due to soil pH increase mitigating Al or Mn toxicity.
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