Brain and Mind

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 243–259

Studying the Mind from the Inside Out

  • Dan Lloyd
Article

Abstract

Good research requires, among other virtues,(i) methods that yield stable experimentalobservations without arbitrary (post hoc)assumptions, (ii) logical interpretations ofthe sources of observations, and (iii) soundinferences to general causal mechanismsexplaining experimental results by placing themin larger explanatory contexts. In TheNew Phrenology, William Uttal examines theresearch tradition of localization, and findsit deficient in all three virtues, whetherbased on lesion studies or on new technologiesfor functional brain imaging. In this paper Iconsider just the arguments concerning brainimaging, especially functional MagneticResonance Imaging. I think that Uttal is tooharsh in his methodological critique, butcorrect in his assessment of the conceptuallimitations of localist evidence. I proposeinstead a data-driven test for assessingrelative modularity in brain images, and showits use in a secondary analysis of fMRI datafrom the National fMRI Data Center(www.fmridc.org). Although the analysis is alimited pilot study, it offers additionalempirical challenge to localism.

cognition functional MRI functional neuroimaging modularity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aguirre, G., Zarahn, E., and D'Esposito, M., 1997: Empirical analysis of BOLD fMRI statistics, Neuroimage 5, 199–212.Google Scholar
  2. Aguirre, G., Zarahn, E., and D'Esposito, M., 1998: The variability of human, BOLD hemodynamic responses, Neuroimage 8, 360–369.Google Scholar
  3. Ashburner, J., and Friston, K., 1997: Spatial transformation of images, in R.S. Frackowiak, K. Friston, C.D. Frith, R. Dolan and J. Mazziotta (eds), Human Brain Function, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  4. Bandettini, P., 1993: Processing strategies for time–course data sets in functional MRI of the human brain, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 30, 161–173.Google Scholar
  5. Cabeza, R., and Nyberg, L., 2000: Imaging Cognition II: An empirical review of PET studies with normal subjects, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 12, 1 47.Google Scholar
  6. Cohen, M.S., 1996: Rapid MRI and functional applications, in A. Toga and J. Mazziotta (eds), Brain Mapping: The ethods, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  7. Friston, K., 1996: Statistical parametric mapping and other analyses of functional imaging data, in A. Toga and J. Mazziotta (eds), Brain Mapping: The Methods, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  8. Friston, K.J., Holmes, A.P., Poline, J.B., Grasby, P.J., Williams, S.C., Frackowiak, R.S., and Turner, R., 1995: Analysis of fMRI time–series revisited, Neuroimage 2, 45–53.Google Scholar
  9. Harpaz, Y., 1999: Replicability of cognitive imaging of the cerebral corte x by PET and fMRI: A Survey of recent literature. http://www.yehouda.com/replicability.html.Google Scholar
  10. Lange, N., 1996: Statistical approaches to human brain mapping by function magnetic resonance imagining, Statistics in Medicine 15, 389–428.Google Scholar
  11. Lloyd, D., 2000: Terra cognita: From functional neuroimaging to the map of the mind, Brain and Mind 1, 93–116.Google Scholar
  12. Logothetis, N.K., Pauls, J., Augath, M., Trinath, T., and Oeltermann, A., 2001: Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI signal, Nature 412, 150–157.Google Scholar
  13. Poline, J.B., Holmes, A.P., Worsley, K., and Friston, K., 1997: Making statistical inferences, in R.S. Frackowiak, K. Friston, C.D. Frith, R. Dolan and J. Mazziotta (eds), Human Brain Function, Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  14. Posner, M., and Raichle, M., 1994: Images of Mind, W.H. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Postle, B.R., Berger, J.S., Taich, A.M., and D'Esposito, M., 2000: Activity in human frontal cortex associated with spatial working memory and saccadic behavior, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 12(2), 2–14.Google Scholar
  16. Wimsatt, W., 1976: Reductionism, levels of organization, and the mind–body problem, in G. Globus, G. Maxwell and I. Savodnik (eds), Brain and Consciousness, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dan Lloyd
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyTrinity CollegeHartfordUSA

Personalised recommendations