Ethics and Information Technology

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 133–142 | Cite as

Cyberstalking and Internet pornography: Gender and the gaze

  • Alison Adam

Abstract

This paper is based on the premise that the analysis of some cyberethics problems would benefit from a feminist treatment. It is argued that both cyberstalking and Internet child pornography are two such areas which have a `gendered' aspect which has rarely been explored in the literature. Against a wide ranging feminist literature of potential relevance, the paper explores a number of cases through a focused approach which weaves together feminist concepts of privacy and the gaze.

cyberstalking feminist ethics Internet pornography privacy the gaze 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. A. Adam. Artificial Knowing: Gender and the Thinking Machine. Routledge, London and New York, 1998.Google Scholar
  2. A. Adam. Gender and Computer Ethics. ACM Computers and Society, 30(4): 17–24, 2000.Google Scholar
  3. A. Adam. Computer Ethics in a Different Voice. Information and Organization, 11(4): 235–61, 2001.Google Scholar
  4. A. Adam, A. and J. Ofori-Amanfo. Does Gender Matter in Computer Ethics? Ethics and Information Technology, 2(1): 37–47, 2000.Google Scholar
  5. S. Brail. The Price of Admission: Harassment and Free Speech in the Wild, Wild West. In L. Cherny, L. and E. Wise, editors, wired-women: Gender and New Realities in Cyberspace, pages 141–157. Seal Press, Seattle, WA, 1996.Google Scholar
  6. T. Burt. Stalking and Voyeurism over the Internet: Psychiatric and Forensic Issues. Proc. Academy of Forensic Science, 3: 172, 1997.Google Scholar
  7. J. DeCew. In Pursuit of Privacy: Law, Ethics, and the Rise of Technology. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London, 1997.Google Scholar
  8. N. Denzin. The Cinematic Society: the Voyeur's Gaze. Sage, London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi, 1995.Google Scholar
  9. L. Edwards. Pornography and the Internet, In L. Edwards and C. Waelde, editors, Law & the Internet: a Framework for Electronic Commerce, pages 275–308. Oxford, Hart, 2000.Google Scholar
  10. M. Foucault. Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison. Vintage Books, New York, 1995.Google Scholar
  11. D. Khazanchi. Unethical Behavior in Information Systems: the Gender Factor. Journal of Business Ethics, 14: 741–749, 1995.Google Scholar
  12. J. Kreie, J. and T. Cronan. How Men and Women View Ethics. Communications of the ACM, 41(9): 70–76, 1998.Google Scholar
  13. F. Lane. Obscene Profits: the Entrepreneurs of Pornography in the Cyber Age. Routledge, New York and London, 2000.Google Scholar
  14. D. MacCannell and J.F. MacCannell. Violence, Power and Pleasure: A Revisionist Reading of Foucault from the Victim Perspective. In C. Ramazanoglu, editor, Up Against Foucault: Explorations of Some Tensions Between Foucault and Feminism, pages 203–238. Routledge, London and New York, 1993.Google Scholar
  15. C. MacKinnon. The Sexual Harassment of Working Women. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1979.Google Scholar
  16. J. Meloy. The Psychology of Stalking. In J. Meloy, editor, The Psychology of Stalking: Clinical and Forensic Perspectives, pages 1–23. Academic Press, New York, 1998.Google Scholar
  17. J. Mingo. Caught in the Net: an Online Posse Tracks Down an Internet Stalker. Online. Available http://www.houstonpress.com/extra/cyberstalk.html (24 March 2000).Google Scholar
  18. J. Moor Towards a theory of privacy for the Information Age. In R.A. Spinello and H. T. Tavani, editors, Readings in Cyberethics, pages 349–359. Jones and Bartlett, Sudbury, MA, 2001.Google Scholar
  19. T. Nagel. A View From Nowhere. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1986.Google Scholar
  20. A. Neustatter. Mind that Child. Guardian Unlimited, August, 15, 2000. Online. Available http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,354423,00.html (21st February, 2002).Google Scholar
  21. A. Packard. Does Proposed Federal Cyberstalking Legislation Meet Constitutional Requirements? Communication Law and Policy, 5: 505–538, 2000.Google Scholar
  22. Panorama. Transcript of “The Wonderland Club”, Broadcast on 11th February, 2001. Online. Available http://www.bbc.co.uk/panorama (12th February, 2001).Google Scholar
  23. J. Reno, Cyberstalking: A New Challenge for Law Enforcement and Industry. A Report from the Attorney General to the Vice President. Online. Available http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/cyberstalkingreport.html (30 November 1999).Google Scholar
  24. K. Roiphe. The Morning After: Sex, Fear and Feminism. Hamish Hamilton, London, 1993.Google Scholar
  25. R. Salecel and S. Zizek. Gender and Voice as Love Objects. Durham, NC, Duke University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  26. G. Sewell and B. Wilkinson. Someone to Watch Over Me: Surveillance, Discipline and the Just-in-Time Labour Process. Sociology, 26(2): 271–289, 1992.Google Scholar
  27. J. Shallit. Public Networks and Censorship. In P. Ludlow, editor, High Noon on the Electronic Frontier, pages 275–289. MIT Press, Cambridge MA, 1996.Google Scholar
  28. R. Spier. Science and Technology Ethics. Routledge, London and New York, 2001.Google Scholar
  29. J. Stack, A. Panteli, M. Atkinson and H. Ramsay. Women in Computing: The Ethical Responsibility of the IT Industry. AISB Quarterly, 100: 53–62, 1998.Google Scholar
  30. H. Tavani. and F. Grodzinsky. Is Cyberstalking a Special Type of Computer Crime?, Proc. ETHICOMP 2001, 2: 73–85, 2001.Google Scholar
  31. The Guardian. Cyber-Stalkers Make Computer New Tool of Terror. 29 November, broadsheet section, 13, 1999.Google Scholar
  32. The Guardian. Nine Held in Net Child Porn Raids. 29 November, broadsheet section, 2, 2001.Google Scholar
  33. A. M. Thomas and C. Kitzinger. Sexual Harassment: Contemporary Feminist Perspectives. Open University Press, Buckingham, 1997.Google Scholar
  34. R. Tong. Feminist Ethics. In E. Zalta, editor, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 1999 Edition). Online. Available http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall1999/entries/feminism-ethics/ (24 November 1999).Google Scholar
  35. USAToday. Gore asks Reno to Study Cyberstalking. 26 February, 1999. Online. Available http://www.usatoday.com/life/cyber/tech/cte509.html (30 November, 1999).Google Scholar
  36. J. Wajcman. Feminism Confronts Technology. Polity Press, Cambridge, UK, 1991.Google Scholar
  37. S. Welsh. The Multidimensional Nature of Sexual Harassment: An Empirical Analysis ofWomen's Sexual Harassment Complaints. Violence Against Women, 6: 118–141, 2000.Google Scholar
  38. M. White. Visual Pleasure in Textual Places: Gazing in Multi-User Object-Oriented Worlds. In E. Green and A. Adam, editors, Virtual Gender: Technology, Consumption and Identity, pages 124–149. Routledge, London and New York, 2001.Google Scholar
  39. C. Wright. Murder.com, The Boston Phoenix, Aug 10-17, 2000. Online. Available http://www.bostonphoenix.com/archive/features/00/08/10/MURDER.html (24th November 2000).Google Scholar
  40. S. Zuboff. In the Age of the Smart Machine. Heinemann, London, 1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alison Adam
    • 1
  1. 1.Information Systems Research CentreUniversity of SalfordSalfordUK

Personalised recommendations