Journal of World Prehistory

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 99–143

Cattle Before Crops: The Beginnings of Food Production in Africa

  • Fiona Marshall
  • Elisabeth Hildebrand

DOI: 10.1023/A:1019954903395

Cite this article as:
Marshall, F. & Hildebrand, E. Journal of World Prehistory (2002) 16: 99. doi:10.1023/A:1019954903395


In many areas of the world, current theories for agricultural origins emphasize yield as a major concern during intensification. In Africa, however, the need for scheduled consumption shaped the development of food production. African cattle were domesticated during the tenth millennium BP by delayed-return Saharan hunter-gatherers in unstable, marginal environments where predictable access to resources was a more significant problem than absolute abundance. Pastoralism spread patchily across the continent according to regional variations in the relative predictability of herding versus hunting and gathering. Domestication of African plants was late (after 4000 BP) because of the high mobility of herders, and risk associated with cultivation in arid environments. Renewed attention to predictability may contribute to understanding the circumstances that led to domestication in other regions of the world.

archaeology Africa predictability cattle domestication 

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fiona Marshall
    • 1
  • Elisabeth Hildebrand
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyWashington University in St. LouisSt. Louis

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