Prediction of Recidivism in Exhibitionists: Psychological, Phallometric, and Offense Factors

  • Sharon R. Rabinowitz Greenberg
  • Philip Firestone
  • John M. Bradford
  • David M. Greenberg


Exhibitionists have traditionally been regarded as nuisance offenders. However, empirical studies show that some offenders can be highly recidivistic and can escalate to incidents of Hands-on sexual assault. The objective of this study was to investigate predictors of recidivism in exhibitionists and clarify the differences between Hands-on and Hands-off sexual recidivists. Two hundred and twenty-one exhibitionists were assessed at a university teaching hospital between 1983 and 1996. Archival data came from medical files and police files. The Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R) was assessed retrospectively. Results indicated that over a mean follow-up period of 6.84 years, 11.7, 16.8, and 32.7% of exhibitionists were charged with or convicted of sexual, violent, or criminal offenses, respectively. Sexual reoffending recidivists were less educated, and had more prior sexual and criminal offenses. Violent, recidivists were also less educated, had lower Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) scores, higher PCL-R Totals, and more prior sexual, violent, and criminal offenses. Criminal recidivists were younger, less educated, had lower DSFI scores, higher PCL-R scores, higher Pedophile Indices, and more prior sexual, violent, and criminal offenses. Hands-on sexual recidivists demonstrated higher PCL-R ratings, higher Pedophile and Rape indices, and more prior sexual, violent, and criminal offenses than did Hands-offcounterparts.

exhibitionist sex offender paraphilia recidivism predictors 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharon R. Rabinowitz Greenberg
    • 1
  • Philip Firestone
    • 1
    • 2
  • John M. Bradford
    • 2
  • David M. Greenberg
    • 3
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural ScienceUniversity of Western AustraliaAustralia

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