Advertisement

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp 515–527 | Cite as

An Examination of the Response Styles Theory of Depression in Third- and Seventh-Grade Children: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

  • John R. Z. Abela
  • Karen Brozina
  • Emily P. Haigh
Article

Abstract

The goal of this study was to test the response styles theory of depression in a sample of 3rd- and 7th-grade children. In addition, we examined whether the relationship between rumination and increases in depressive symptoms is mediated by hopelessness and low self-esteem. The procedure involved an initial assessment in which depressive symptoms, response styles, hopelessness, and self-esteem were assessed. The procedure also involved a follow-up assessment, 6 weeks later, in which depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and self-esteem were reassessed. Children with a ruminative response style exhibited increases in depressive symptoms over the 6-week period. In addition, the relationship between rumination and increases in depressive symptoms was mediated by both hopelessness and low self-esteem. Last, contrary to our hypotheses, neither distraction nor problem-solving response styles predicted decreases in depressive symptoms over the course of the study.

response styles rumination distraction problem solving depression children 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Abela, J. R. Z. (2001). The hopelessness theory of depression: A test of the diathesis—stress and causal mediation components in third and seventh grade children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 241-254.Google Scholar
  2. Abela, J. R. Z., & D'Alessandro, D. U. (2001). An examination of the symptom component of the hopelessness theory of depression in a sample of schoolchildren. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 15, 33-47.Google Scholar
  3. Abela, J. R. Z., Rochon, A., & Vanderbilt, E. (2000). The Children's Response Style Questionnaire (Unpublished questionnaire). Montreal, Canada: McGill University.Google Scholar
  4. Abela, J. R. Z., Vanderbilt, E., & Rochon, A. (2001). A test of the integration of the response styles and social support theories of depression in third and seventh grade children. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  5. Abela, J. R. Z., & Véronneau-McArdle, M. (2002). The relationship between self-complexity and depressive symptoms in third and seventh grade children: A short-term longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 155-166.Google Scholar
  6. Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358-372.Google Scholar
  7. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, A. T. (1983). Cognitive therapy of depression: New perspectives. In P. J. Clayton & J. E. Barrett (Eds.), Treatment of depression: Old controversies and new approaches (pp. 265-290). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  9. Broderick, P. C. (1998). Early adolescent gender differences in the use of ruminative and distracting coping strategies. Journal of Early Adolescence, 18, 173-191.Google Scholar
  10. Burke, K. C., Burke, J. D., Rae, D. S., & Reiger, D. A. (1991). Comparing age at onset of major depression and other psychiatric disorders by birth cohorts in five US community populations. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 789-796.Google Scholar
  11. Butler, L. D., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1994). Gender differences in responses to depressed mood in a college sample. Sex Roles, 30, 331-346.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). London: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  13. Cole, D. (1991). Preliminary support for a competency-based model of depression in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 181-190.Google Scholar
  14. Conway, M., Giannopoulos, C., & Stiefenhofer, K. (1990). Response styles to sadness are related to sex and sex-role orientation. Sex Roles, 22, 579-587.Google Scholar
  15. Corrigan, R. (1995). How infants and young children understand the causes of negative events. In N. Eiseberg (Ed.), Social development (pp. 1-26). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Garber, J. (2000). Development and depression. In A. J. Sameroff, M. Lewis, & S. M. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 467-490). New York: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  17. Hammen, C. L., & Gotlib, I. H. (1992). Psychological aspects of depression. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Harter, S. (1986). Processes underlying the construction, maintenance, and enhancement of the self-concept in children. In J. Suis & A. Greenwald (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 3, pp. 137-181). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Harter, S. (1990). Causes, correlates, and the functional role of global self-worth: A life-span perspective. In R. J. Sternberg & J. Kolligan Jr. (Eds.), Competence considered (pp. 67-97). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Joiner, T. E., Jr. (1994). Covariance of baseline symptom scores in prediction of future symptom scores: A methodological note. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18, 497-504.Google Scholar
  21. Joiner, T. E., Jr. (2000). A test of the hopelessness theory of depression in youth psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 167-176.Google Scholar
  22. Just, N., & Alloy, L. (1997). The response styles theory of depression: Tests and an extension of the theory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 221-229.Google Scholar
  23. Kaslow, N. J., Adamson, L. B., & Collins, M. H. (2000). A developmental psychopathology perspective on the cognitive components of child and adolescent depression. In A. J. Sameroff, M. Lewis, & S. M. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 491-510). New York: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  24. Katz, E. J., & Bertelson, A. D. (1993). The effects of gender and response style on depressed mood. Sex Roles, 29, 509-514.Google Scholar
  25. Kazdin, A. E., French, N. H., Unis, A. S., Esveldt-Dawson, K., & Sherick, R. B. (1983). Hopelessness, depression, and suicidal intent among psychiatrically disturbed inpatient children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 504-510.Google Scholar
  26. Klerman, G. L., Lavori, P. W., Rice, J., Reich, T., Endicott, J., Andreasen, N. C., et al. (1985). Birth cohort trends in rates of major depressive disorder among relatives of patients with affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 689-693.Google Scholar
  27. Kovacs, M. (1981). Rating scales to assess depression in school children. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 46, 305-315.Google Scholar
  28. Kovacs, M. (1983). The Children's Depression Inventory: A self-rated depression scale for school-aged youngsters. Unpublished manuscript, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.Google Scholar
  29. Metalsky, G. I., & Joiner, T. E., Jr. (1992). Vulnerability to depressive symptomatology: A prospective test of the diathesis—stress and causal mediation components of the hopelessness theory of depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 667-675.Google Scholar
  30. Morrow, J., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1990). Effects of responses to depression on the remediation of depressive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 519-527.Google Scholar
  31. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1987). Sex differences in unipolar depression: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 259-282.Google Scholar
  32. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569-582.Google Scholar
  33. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Girgus, J. S. (1994). The emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 424-443.Google Scholar
  34. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J. S., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1992). Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: A five-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 405-422.Google Scholar
  35. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115-121.Google Scholar
  36. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1993). Effects of rumination and distraction on naturally occurring depressed mood. Cognition and Emotion, 7, 561-570.Google Scholar
  37. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Morrow, J., & Fredrickson, B. L. (1993). Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 20-28.Google Scholar
  38. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Parker, L., & Larson, J. (1994). Ruminative coping with depressed mood following loss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 92-104.Google Scholar
  39. Oakes, L. M. (1994). Development of infants' use of continuity cues in their perceptions of causality. Developmental Psychology, 30, 869-879.Google Scholar
  40. Rosenthal, R. (1984). Meta-analytic procedures for social research. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Rholes, W. S., Blackwell, J., Jordan, C., & Walters, C. (1980). A developmental study of learned helplessness. Developmental Psychology, 16, 616-624.Google Scholar
  42. Sarin, S., & Abela, J. R. Z. (2001). The response styles theory of depression: A test of specificity and causal mediation. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  43. Strauss, J., Muday, T., McNall, K., & Wong, M. (1997). Response style theory revisited: Gender differences and stereotypes in rumination and distraction. Sex Roles, 36, 771-792.Google Scholar
  44. Swartz, J. A. J., & Koenig, L. J. (1996). Response styles and negative affect among adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 20, 13-36.Google Scholar
  45. Trask, P. C., & Sigmon, S. T. (1999). Rumination and distracting: The effects of sequential tasks on depressed mood. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 23, 231-246.Google Scholar
  46. Turner, J. E., & Cole, D. A. (1994). Developmental differences in cognitive diatheses in child depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 103, 15-32.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • John R. Z. Abela
    • 1
  • Karen Brozina
    • 1
  • Emily P. Haigh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMcGill UniversityMontreal (Quebec)Canada

Personalised recommendations