Advertisement

International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 1053–1062 | Cite as

New Evidence for Leaf Swallowing and Oesophagostomum Infection in Bonobos (Pan paniscus)

  • Jef Dupain
  • Linda Van Elsacker
  • Carlos Nell
  • Paola Garcia
  • Francisco Ponce
  • Michael A. Huffman
Article

Abstract

We collected data on parasitic prevalence and leaf-swallowing behavior of bonobos (Pan paniscus) between August 1998 and April 1999 at the Iyema research site, Lomako Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo. We report the first detailed observations of leaf-swallowing among bonobos and the first record of the behavior at Iyema-Lomako. Bonobo leaf-swallowing closely fits the description of the behavior among chimpanzees. Bonobos ingested leaves of Manniophyton fulvum, as occurs in two chimpanzee populations in Central and Western Africa and among bonobos at Wamba, about 200 km from Iyema-Lomako. All leaf-swallowing occured in the rainy season. In conformity with patterns among Mahale chimpanzees, the prevalence of Oesophagostomum sp. infection in bonobos increased after the onset of the rainy season.

Pan paniscus Oesophagostomum stephanostomum leaf swallowing 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Anderson, R.C. (1992). Nematode parasites of vertebrates: Their development andTransmission, C.A.B. International, Walingford.Google Scholar
  2. Ashford, R. W., Reid, G. D. F., and Wrangham, R. W. (2000). Intestinal parasites of the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes in Kibale Forest, Uganda. Ann. Tropic. Med. Parasitol. 94(2): 173–179.Google Scholar
  3. Boesch, C. (1995). Innovation in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Int. J. Primatol. 16: 1–16.Google Scholar
  4. Dupain, J., Garc´ía, P., Nell, C., Van Elsacker, L., and Ponce, F. (1999). A survey of intestinal parasites of a sympatric population of bonobos (Pan paniscus) and humans (Homosapiens) in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 6.Kongress der Gesellschaft für Primatologie, Aug. 18-21, 1999, Utrecht, Netherlands, Abstract p. 71.Google Scholar
  5. Dupain, J., and Van Elsacker, L. (1999). The Bonobo-in-Situ Project at the Iyema Research Site (Lomako Forest, Equateur Province, Democratic Republic Congo). In COE International Symposium on Evolution of the Apes and the Origin of the Human Beings, Nov. 18-20, 1999, Inuyama, Japan.Google Scholar
  6. Hasegawa, H., Kano, T., and Mulavwa, M. (1983). A parasitological survey on the feces of pygmy chimpanzees, Pan paniscus, at Wamba, Zaire. Primates 24(3): 419–423.Google Scholar
  7. Huffman, M. A. (1997). Current evidence for self-medication in primates: A multidisciplinary perspective. Yearbook Phys. Anthropol. 40: 171–200.Google Scholar
  8. Huffman, M. A., and Caton, J. M. (2001). Self-induced increase of gut motility and the control of parasite infections in wild chimpanzees. Int. J. Primatol. 22: 329–346.Google Scholar
  9. Huffman, M. A., Gotoh, S., Turner, L. A., Hamai, M., and Yoshida, K. (1997). Seasonal trends in intestinal nematode infection and medicinal plant use among chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. Primates 38(2): 111–125.Google Scholar
  10. Huffman, M. A., Nishida, T., and Uehara, S. (1990). Intestinal parasites and medicinal plant use in wild chimpanzees: Possible behavioral adaptation for the control of parasites. In Mahale Mountains Chimpanzee Research Project, Ecological Report No. 72, Kyoto University, Kyoto.Google Scholar
  11. Huffman, M. A., Page, J. E., S hukdeo, M. V. K., Gotoh, S., Kalunde, M. S., Chandrasari, T., and Towers, G.H. N. (1996). Leaf-swallowing by chimpanzees:Abehavioral adaptation for the control of strongyle nematode infections. Int. J. Primatol. 17(4): 475–503.Google Scholar
  12. Huffman, M. A., and Seifu, M. (1989). Observations on the illness and consumption of a possibly medicinal plant Vernonia amygdalina (Del.), by a wild chimpanzee in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Primates 30: 51–63.Google Scholar
  13. Huffman, M. A., and Wrangham, R. W. (1994). The diversity of medicinal plant use by chimpanzees in the wild. In Wrangham, R. W., McGrew, W. C., DeWaal, F. B., and Heltne, P. G. (eds.), Chimpanzee Cultures, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 129–148.Google Scholar
  14. Idani, G., Kuroda, S., Kano, T., and Asato, R. (1994). Flora and vegetation of Wamba Forest, Central Zaire with reference to bonobo (Pan paniscus) foods. Tropics 3(3/4): 309–332.Google Scholar
  15. Janzen, D. H. (1978). Complications in interpreting the chemical defenses of trees against tropical arboreal plant-eating vertebrates. In Montgomery, G. G. (ed.), The Ecology of Arboreal Folivores, Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, DC, pp. 73–84.Google Scholar
  16. Jisaka, M., Kawanaka, M., Sugiyama, H., Takeqawa, K., Huffman, M. A., Ohigashi, H., and Koshimizu, K. (1992). Antischistosomal activities of sesquiterpene lactones and steroid glucosides from Vernonia amygdalina, possibly used by wild chimpanzees against parasite-related diseases. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 56(5): 845–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Jisaka, M., Ohigashi, H., Takeqawa, K., Huffman, M. A., and Koshimizu, K. (1993). Antitumor and antimicrobial activities of bitter sesquiterpene lactones of Vernonia amygdalina, a possible mecidinal plant used by wild chimpanzees. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 57: 833–834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kawabata, M., and Nishida, T. (1991). A preliminary note on the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. Primates 32(2): 275–278.Google Scholar
  19. Koshimizu, K., Oigashi, H., and Huffman, M. A. (1994). Use of Vernonia amygdalina by wild chimpanzee: Possible roles of its bitter and related constituents. Physiol. Behav. 56(6): 1209–1216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ohigashi, H., Jisaka, M., Takagaki, T., Nozaki, H., Tada, T., Huffman, M. A., Nishida, T., Kaji, M., and Koshimizu, K. (1991). Bitter principle and a related steroid glucoside from Vernonia amygdalina, a possible medicinal plant for wild chimpanzees. Agricult. Biol.Chem. 55: 1201–1203.Google Scholar
  21. Ohigashi, H., Huffman, M. A., Izutsu, D., Koshimizu, K., Kawanaka, M., Sugiyama, H., Kirby, G. C., Warhurst, D. C., Allen, D., Wright, C.W., Phillipson, J. D., Timmon-David, P., Delnas, F., Elias, R., and Balansard, G. (1994). Toward the chemical ecology of medicinal plant-use in chimpanzees: The case of Vernonia amygdalina (Del.). A plant used by wild chimpanzees possibly for parasite-related diseases. J. Chem. Ecol. 20(3): 541–553.Google Scholar
  22. Page, J. E., Balza, F., Nishida, T., and Towers, G.H.N. (1992). Biologically active diterpenes from Aspilia mossambicensis, a chimpanzee medicinal plant. Phytochemistry 31: 3437–3439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Page, J. E., Hufman, M. A., Smith, V., and Towers, G. H. N. (1997). Chemical basis for Aspilia leaf-swallowing by chimpanzees: A reanalysis. J. Chem. Ecol. 23(9): 2211–2226.Google Scholar
  24. Ritchie, L. S. (1948).An ether sedimentatin technique for routine stool examinations. Bull.U.S.Army Med. Dept. 8: 326.Google Scholar
  25. Rodriguez, E., Aregullin, M., Nishida, T., Uehara, S., Wrangham, R. W., Abramowski, Z., Finlayson, A., and Towers, G. H. N. (1985). Thiarubrin A, a bioactive constituent of Aspilia (Asteraceae) consumed by wild chimpanzees. Experientia 41: 419–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Rodriguez, E., and Wrangham, R.W. (1993). Zoopharmacognosy: The use of medicinal plants by animals. In Downum, K. R., Romeo, J. T., and Stafford, H. A. (eds.), Phytochemical Potentials of Tropical Plants, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 89–105.Google Scholar
  27. Towers, G. H., Abramowski, Z., Finlayson, A. J., and Zucconi, A. (1985). Antibiotic properties of thiarubrine-A, a naturally occurring dithiacyclohexadiene polyine. Planta Med. 3: 225–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Wrangham, R.W. (1995). Relationship of chimpanzee leaf-swallowing to a tapeworm infection.Am. J. Primatol. 37: 297–303.Google Scholar
  29. Wrangham, R. W., and Goodall, J. (1989). Chimpanzee use of medicinal leaves. In Heltne, P.G., and Marguardt, L. A. (eds.), Understanding Chimpanzees, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 22–37.Google Scholar
  30. Wrangham, R.W., and Nishida, T. (1983). Aspilia spp. Leaves:Apuzzlle in the feeding behavior of wild chimpanzees. Primates 24: 276–282.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jef Dupain
    • 1
    • 2
  • Linda Van Elsacker
    • 1
    • 3
  • Carlos Nell
    • 4
  • Paola Garcia
    • 5
  • Francisco Ponce
    • 5
  • Michael A. Huffman
    • 6
  1. 1.Centre for Research and ConservationRoyal Zoological Society of AntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.Center for Evolution Modeling Research, Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityJapan
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of AntwerpBelgium
  4. 4.Universidad Autonomica de MadridSpain
  5. 5.Department of Parasitology, Faculty PharmacyUniversidad Complutense de MadridSpain
  6. 6.Center for Evolution Modeling Research, Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityJapan

Personalised recommendations