International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 1053–1062 | Cite as

New Evidence for Leaf Swallowing and Oesophagostomum Infection in Bonobos (Pan paniscus)

  • Jef Dupain
  • Linda Van Elsacker
  • Carlos Nell
  • Paola Garcia
  • Francisco Ponce
  • Michael A. Huffman


We collected data on parasitic prevalence and leaf-swallowing behavior of bonobos (Pan paniscus) between August 1998 and April 1999 at the Iyema research site, Lomako Forest, Democratic Republic of Congo. We report the first detailed observations of leaf-swallowing among bonobos and the first record of the behavior at Iyema-Lomako. Bonobo leaf-swallowing closely fits the description of the behavior among chimpanzees. Bonobos ingested leaves of Manniophyton fulvum, as occurs in two chimpanzee populations in Central and Western Africa and among bonobos at Wamba, about 200 km from Iyema-Lomako. All leaf-swallowing occured in the rainy season. In conformity with patterns among Mahale chimpanzees, the prevalence of Oesophagostomum sp. infection in bonobos increased after the onset of the rainy season.

Pan paniscus Oesophagostomum stephanostomum leaf swallowing 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jef Dupain
    • 1
    • 2
  • Linda Van Elsacker
    • 1
    • 3
  • Carlos Nell
    • 4
  • Paola Garcia
    • 5
  • Francisco Ponce
    • 5
  • Michael A. Huffman
    • 6
  1. 1.Centre for Research and ConservationRoyal Zoological Society of AntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.Center for Evolution Modeling Research, Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityJapan
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of AntwerpBelgium
  4. 4.Universidad Autonomica de MadridSpain
  5. 5.Department of Parasitology, Faculty PharmacyUniversidad Complutense de MadridSpain
  6. 6.Center for Evolution Modeling Research, Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityJapan

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