Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 105, Issue 1, pp 85–97 | Cite as

Results from One-Year Continuous Operation of a Large Aperture Scintillometer over a Heterogeneous Land Surface

  • F. BeyrichEmail author
  • H. A. R. De Bruin
  • W. M. L. Meijninger
  • J. W. Schipper
  • H. Lohse


A large-aperture scintillometer (LAS) was operated continuouslyduring a period of more than one year over a heterogeneous land surface in Central Europeat the transition between marine and continental climates. The LAS measurements of the refractiveindex structure parameter, CN2, were used to estimate the sensible heat flux. Thiswas possible for about 60to 80% of the time under daytime conditions during thesummer, with lower values obtained for the cold season (October to March). Using datafrom a three-week long field experiment, the LAS-based heat flux was compared with a weighedaverage of local heat flux measurements over the main land use classes (forest, agriculture,water) in the area, resulting in reasonable agreement. LAS-based heat fluxes were then used forcomparison with the heat flux values of a numerical weather prediction model. An over-predictionof the model heat flux was found in summer but the modelled values were lower than the LASderived data during the cold season.

Area-averaged fluxes Heterogeneous land surface Large-aperture scintillometer Numerical weather prediction Operational aspects Sensible heat flux 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Avissar, R. and Pielke, R. A.: 1989, 'A Parameterization of Heterogeneous Land Surface for Atmospheric Numerical Models and its Impact on Regional Meteorology', Mon. Wea. Rev. 117, 2113–2136.Google Scholar
  2. Beyrich, F., Herzog, H.-J., and Neisser, J.: 2002, 'The LITFASS Project of DWD and the LITFASS-98 Experiment: The Project Strategy and the Experimental Setup', Theor. Appl. Climatol., in press.Google Scholar
  3. Beyrich, F., Richter, S. H., Weisensee, U., Kohsiek, W., Bosveld, F., Lohse, H., De Bruin, H. A. R., Hartogensis, O., Bange, J., and Vogt, R.: 2000, 'The LITFASS-98 Experiment: Fluxes over a Heterogeneous Land Surface', in Proceedings of the 14th Symposium on Boundary Layer and Turbulence, Aspen, CO, August 7-11, 2000, American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St., Boston, MA, pp. 9–10.Google Scholar
  4. Chehbouni, A., Watts, C., Lagouarde, J.-P., Kerr, Y. H., Rodriguez, J.-C., Bonnefond, J.-M., Santiago, F., Dedieu, G., Goodrich, D. C., and Unkrich, C.: 2000, 'Estimation of Heat and Momentum Fluxes over Complex Terrain Using a Large-Aperture Scintillometer', Agric. For. Meteorol. 105, 215–226.Google Scholar
  5. Claussen, M.: 1991, 'Estimation of Areally Averaged Surface Fluxes', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 54, 387–410.Google Scholar
  6. De Bruin, H. A. R., Kohsiek, W., and Van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.: 1993, 'A Verification of Some Methods to Determine the Fluxes of Momentum, Sensible Heat and Water Vapour Using Standard Deviation and Structure Parameter of Scalar Meteorological Quantities', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 63, 231–257.Google Scholar
  7. De Bruin, H. A. R., Nieveen, J. P., DeWekker, S. F. J., and Heusinkveld, B. G.: 1996, 'Large Aperture Scintillometry over a 4.8 km Path Length for Measuring Areally-Average Sensible Heat Flux', in Proceedings of the 22nd Symposium on Agricultural Forest Meteorology, Atlanta, GA, January 28-February 2, 1996, American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St., Boston, MA, pp. J69–J71.Google Scholar
  8. De Bruin, H. A. R., Van den Hurk, B. J. J. M., and Kohsiek, W.: 1995, 'The Scintillation Method Tested over a Dry Vinyard Area', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 76, 25–40.Google Scholar
  9. Foken, Th., Neisser, J., Richter, S. H., Rosenow, W., Weisensee, U., Heise, E., Müller, E., and Herzog, H.-J.: 1997, 'The LITFASS Project of the German Weather Service', in Proceedings of the 12th Symposium on Boundary Layers & Turbulence, Vancouver BC, July 28-August 1, 1997, American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St., Boston, MA, pp. 567–568.Google Scholar
  10. Frech, M., Samuelsson, P., Tjernström, M., and Jochum, A.M.: 1998, 'Regional Surface Fluxes over the NOPEX Area', J. Hydrol. 212-213, 155–171.Google Scholar
  11. Garratt, J. R.: 1992, The Atmospheric Boundary Layer, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 316 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Giorgi, F. and Avissar, R.: 1997, 'Representation of Heterogeneity Effects in Earth System Modelling: Experience from Land Surface Modelling', Rev. Geophys. 35, 413–438.Google Scholar
  13. Green, A. E., Astill, M. S., McAneney, K. J., and Nieveen, J. P.: 2001, 'Path Averaged Surface Fluxes Determined from Infrared and Microwave Scintillometers', Agric. For. Meteorol. 109, 233–247.Google Scholar
  14. Green, A. E., McAneney, K. J., and Astill, M. S.: 1994, 'Surface Layer Scintillation Measurements of Daytime Heat and Momentum Fluxes', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 68, 357–373.Google Scholar
  15. Hill, R. J.: 1997, 'Algorithms for Obtaining Atmospheric Surface-Layer Fluxes from Scintillation Measurements', J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 14, 456–467.Google Scholar
  16. Hill, R. J., Ochs, G. R., and Wilson, J. J.: 1992, 'Measuring Surface Layer Fluxes of Heat and Momentum Using Optical Scintillation', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 391–408.Google Scholar
  17. Kohsiek, W.: 1982, 'Measuring CT2, CQ2 and CTQ in the Unstable Surface Layer, and Relations to the Vertical Fluxes of Heat and Moisture', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 24, 89–107.Google Scholar
  18. Lagouarde, J.-P., McAneney, K. J., and Green, A. E.: 1996, 'Scintillometer Measurements of Sensible Heat Flux over Heterogeneous Surfaces', in J. B. Stewart, E. T. Engman, R. A. Feddes, and Y. Kerr (eds.), Scaling Up in Hydrology Using Remote Sensing, Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, U.K., pp. 147–160.Google Scholar
  19. Lhomme, J.-P., Chehbouni, A., and Monteny, B.: 1994, 'Effective Parameters of Surface Energy Balance in Heterogeneous Landscape', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 71, 297–309.Google Scholar
  20. Mahrt, L.: 1996, 'The Bulk Aerodynamic Formulation over Heterogeneous Surfaces', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 78, 87–119.Google Scholar
  21. Meijninger, W. M. L. and De Bruin, H. A. R.: 2000, 'The Sensible Heat Flux over Irrigated Areas in Western Turkey Determined with a Large Aperture Scintillometer', J. Hydrol. 229, 42–49.Google Scholar
  22. Mölders, N., Raabe, A., and Tetzlaff, G.: 1996, 'A Comparison of Two Strategies on Land-Surface Heterogeneity Used in a Mesoscale-β Meteorological Model', Tellus 48A, 733–749.Google Scholar
  23. Oncley, S. P., Lenschow, D. H., Campos, T. L., Davis, K. J., and Mann, J.: 1997, 'Regional Scale Flux Observations across the Boreal Forest during BOREAS', J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29,147–29,154.Google Scholar
  24. Petenko, I. V., Steinhagen, H., Engelbart, D., Görsdorf, U., and Andersson, S.: 2000, 'Horizontal Variability of Meteorological Parameter Profiles in the Lindenberg Grid Element', in S. Bradley (ed.), Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Acoustic Remote Sensing, Auckland, New Zealand (ISBN 0-473-07313-7), pp. 318–321.Google Scholar
  25. Schär, Ch., Lüthi, D., Bexerle, U., and Heise, E.: 1999, 'The Soil-Precipitation Feedback: A Process Study with a Regional Climate Model', J. Climate 12, 722–741.Google Scholar
  26. Thiermann, V. and Grassl, H.: 1992, 'The Measurement of Turbulent Surface-Layer Fluxes by Use of Bichromatic Scintillation', Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 58, 367–389.Google Scholar
  27. Wyngaard, J. C., Izumi, Y., and Collins, Jr., S. A.: 1971, Behavior of the Refractive Index Structure Parameter near the Ground', J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 61, 1646–1650.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Beyrich
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. A. R. De Bruin
    • 2
  • W. M. L. Meijninger
    • 2
  • J. W. Schipper
    • 2
  • H. Lohse
    • 3
  1. 1.German Meteorological Service (DWD)Meteorological Observatory LindenbergLindenbergGermany
  2. 2.Meteorology and Air Quality GroupWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Institut für AtmosphärenphysikGKSS ForschungszentrumGeesthachtGermany

Personalised recommendations