Advertisement

Mobile Networks and Applications

, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 157–174 | Cite as

Floor acquisition multiple access (FAMA) in single‐channel wireless networks

  • J.J. Garcia‐Luna‐Aceves
  • Chane L. Fullmer
Article

Abstract

The FAMA‐NCS protocol is introduced for wireless LANs and ad‐hoc networks that are based on a single channel and asynchronous transmissions (i.e., no time slotting). FAMA‐NCS (for floor acquisition multiple access with non‐persistent carrier sensing) guarantees that a single sender is able to send data packets free of collisions to a given receiver at any given time. FAMA‐NCS is based on a three‐way handshake between sender and receiver in which the sender uses non‐persistent carrier sensing to transmit a request‐to‐send (RTS) and the receiver sends a clear‐to‐send (CTS) that lasts much longer than the RTS to serve as a “busy tone” that forces all hidden nodes to back off long enough to allow a collision‐free data packet to arrive at the receiver. It is shown that carrier sensing is needed to support collision‐free transmissions in the presence of hidden terminals when nodes transmit RTSs asynchronously. The throughput of FAMA‐NCS is analyzed for single‐channel networks with and without hidden terminals; the analysis shows that FAMA‐NCS performs better than ALOHA, CSMA, and all prior proposals based on collision avoidance dialogues (e.g., MACA, MACAW, and IEEE 802.11 DFWMAC) in the presence of hidden terminals. Simulation experiments are used to confirm the analytical results.

Keywords

Information System Communication Network Wireless Network Simulation Experiment Data Packet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    N. Abramson, The ALOHA system – another alternative for computer communications, in: Proc. Fall Joint Computer Conference (1970) pp. 281–285.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    V. Bharghavan, A. Demers, S. Shenker and L. Zhang, MACAW: A media access protocol for wireless LAN's, in: Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '94, London, UK (August 31–September 2, 1994) pp. 212–225.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    K. Biba, A hybrid wireless MAC protocol supporting asynchronous and syncronous MSDU delivery services, Tech. Rep. Paper 802.11/91–92, IEEE 802.11 Working Group (1992).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    R.L. Brewster and A.M. Glass, Throughput analysis of non-persistent and slotted non-persistent CSMA/CA protocols, in: 4th International Conference on Land Mobile Radio, Institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers (1987) pp. 231–236.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    H.S. Chhaya and S. Gupta, Performance modeling of asynchronous data transfer methods of IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, Wireless Networks 3(3) (1997) 217–234.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    K.-C. Chen, Medium access control of wireless LANs for mobile computing, IEEE Network 8(5) (1994) 50–63.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    I. Chlamtac, W.R. Franta and K.D. Levin, BRAM: The broadcast recognizing access method, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-27 (1979) 1183–1189.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    A. Colvin, CSMA with collision avoidance, Computer Commun. 6(5) (1983) 227–235.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    C.L. Fullmer and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Floor acquisition multiple access (FAMA) for packet-radio networks, in: Proc. ACM SIGCOMM 95, Cambridge, MA (August 28–September 1, 1995).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    C.L. Fullmer and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, FAMA-PJ: A channel access protocol for wireless LANs, in: Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking 1995, Berkeley, CA (November 14–15, 1995).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    R. Garces and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Floor acquisition multiple access with collision resolution, in: Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking 1996, Rye, NY (November 10–12, 1996).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    P802.11–Unapproved draft: Wireless LAN medium access control (MAC) and physical specifications, IEEE (January 1996).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    P. Karn, MACA – A new channel access method for packet radio, in: ARRL/CRRL Amateur Radio 9th Computer Networking Conference, ARRL (1990) pp. 134–140.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    L. Kleinrock and M.O. Scholl, Packet switching in radio channels: New conflict-free multiple access schemes, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-28 (1980) 1015–1029. 174 J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, C.L. Fullmer / Floor acquisition multiple access Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    L. Kleinrock and F.A. Tobagi, Packet switching in radio channels: Part I – carrier sense multiple-access modes and their throughputdelay characteristics, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-23(12) (1975) 1400–1416.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    B.M. Leiner, D.L. Nielson and F.A. Tobagi, eds., Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 75, IEEE (January 1987).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    W.F. Lo and H.T. Mouftah, Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection for radio channels, in: IEEE 13th Int. Commun. and Energy Conf. IEEE (1984) pp. 244–247.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    R.M. Metcalfe and D.R. Boggs, Ethernet: Distributed packet switching for local computer networks, Communications of the ACM 19(7) (1976) 395–403.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    R. Rom, Collision detection in radio channels, in: Local Area and Multiple Access Networks (Computer Science Press, 1986) pp. 235–249.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    R. Rom and M. Sidi, Multiple Access Protocols Performance and Analysis (Springer-Verlag, 1990).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    G.S. Sidhu, R.F. Andrews and A.B. Oppenheimer, Inside AppleTalk, 2nd edn. (Addison–Wesley, 1990).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    H. Takagi and L. Kleinrock, Output processes in contention packet broadcasting systems, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-33(11) (1985) 1191–1199.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    F.A. Tobagi and L. Kleinrock, Packet switching in radio channels: Part II – The hidden terminal problem in carrier sense multipleaccess modes and The busy-tone solution, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-23(12) (1975) 1417–1433.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    F.A. Tobagi and L. Kleinrock, Packet switching in radio channels: Part III – Polling and (dynamic) split-channel reservation multiple access, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-24(8) (1976) 832–845.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    F.A. Tobagi and L. Kleinrock, The effect of acknowledgment traffic on the capacity of packet-switched radio channels, IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-26(6) (1978) 815–826.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    K.S. Trivedi, Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing, and Computer Science Applications (Prentice Hall, 1988).Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    B. Vaduvur, Access, addressing and security in wireless packet networks, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, Computer Science Department (1995).Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    J. Weinmiller, M. Schlager, A. Festag and A. Wolisz, Performance study of access control in wireless LANs – IEEE 802.11 DFWMAC and ETSI RES 10 Hiperlan, Mobile Networks and Applications 2(1) (June 1997) 55–68.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    WINGS for Internets Project, http://www.cse.ucsc.edu/research/ccrg/ projects/wings.html.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    C. Wu and V.O.K. Li, Receiver-initiated busy-tone multiple access in packet radio networks, in: ACM SIGCOMM 87 Workshop: Frontiers in Computer Communications Technology, Stowe, VT, USA (August 11–13, 1987).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • J.J. Garcia‐Luna‐Aceves
    • 1
  • Chane L. Fullmer
    • 2
  1. 1.Computer Engineering Department, School of EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA
  2. 2.Rooftop CommunicationsMountain ViewUSA

Personalised recommendations