Advertisement

Catalysis Surveys from Asia

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 169–179 | Cite as

Photocatalysis on titanium oxide catalysts: Approaches in achieving highly efficient reactions and realizing the use of visible light

  • Masakazu Anpo
Article

Abstract

The photocatalytic reactivities of various Ti-based photocatalysts have been investigated for various different types of reactions in order to achieve as highly efficient photocatalytic reactivities as possible. The reactivity of powdered TiO2 is dramatically enhanced by the addition of small amounts of Pt which initiates an effective charge separation of the photo-formed electrons and holes. The highly dispersed titanium oxide species prepared and encapsulated within the zeolite cavities as well as into the SiO 2 matrices exhibit high photocatalytic reactivities due to the high reactivities of their charge transfer excited states. With regard to the use of visible light, ion implantation of metal ions such as Cr or V into powdered TiO2 catalysts has been found to modify the electronic state of TiO 2 , resulting in the shift of the absorption band to longer wavelength regions, i.e., into the visible light region. The extent of the shift strongly depends on the type and concentration of the implanted metal. The present study focuses on the preparation of the photocatalysts, a detailed characterization of the active sites and their dynamics, the direct detection of the reaction intermediate species, as well as a clarification of the mechanisms behind the observed photocatalytic reactions at the molecular level. This work significantly contributes to advances in the design of photocatalysts which will be able to operate efficiently and effectively not only under UV irradiation but, most ideally, under visible light.

photocatalysis; titanium dioxide; size quantization effect; metal-loading, photoelectrochemical reaction; catalytic reaction; excited state; reaction intermediate, visible light; metal ion implantation; ESR; photoluminescence; XAFS; supported catalysts; anchored catalysts 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    K. Honda and A. Fujishima, Nature (London) 238(1972)37; Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 44 (1971)1148.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    G. N. Schrauzer and T. D. Guth, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99(1977)7189.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    B. Kraeutler and A.J. Bard, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99(1977)7729; A.J. Bard, Science 207(1980)139.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    T. Inoue, A. Fujishima, S. Konishi and K. Honda, Nature (London) 277 (1979) 637.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    H. Yoneyama, M. Koizumi and H. Tamura, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 52(1979)3449; K. Koga, H. Yoneyama and H. Tamura, J. Phys. Chem. 84(1980) 1705.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    T. Kawai and T. Sakata, Chem. Phys. Lett. 72(1980)87; Nature (London) 286(1980)474.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    S. Sato and J.M. White, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102(1980)7206; Chem. Phys. Lett. 72(1980)85.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    M. Gratzel, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 84(1980)981; J. Kiwi and M. Gratzel, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101(1979)7214.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    D.E. Scaife, Solar Energy 25(1980)41.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    H. Courbon, J.M. Herrmann and P. Pichat, J. Catal. 72(1981)129.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    H. Yoneyama, N. Nishimura and H. Tamura, J. Phys. Chem. 85 (1981)268.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    G.A. Somorjai, Proceedings of the 8th International Congress on Catalysis, Berlin, Vol. 1, 1984, p. I–113.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    A. Heller, A.A. Shalom, W.A. Bonner and B. Miller, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104(1982)1688.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    M. Gratzel, Energy Resources through Photochemistry and Catalysis, Academic Press, New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Y. Kubokawa and M. Anpo, Shokubai (Catalysis) 23(1982)189.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    M.A. Fox, Acc. Chem. Res. 16(1983)314.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    E. Pelizzetti and N. Serpone, Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, D. Reidel, 1986.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    M.A. Fox, Topics in Current Chemistry, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 1987.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Y. Kubokawa, K. Honda and Y. Saito, Hikarishokubai (Photocatalysis), Asakura-shoten, Tokyo, 1988.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    N. Serpone and E. Pelizzetti, Photocatalysis, Wiley, New York, 1989.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    E. Pelizzetti and M. Schiavello, Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1991.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    P.V. Kamat, Chem. Rev 93(1993)267.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    M.A. Fox and M.T. Dulay, Chem. Rev. 93(1993)341.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    D.F. Ollis and H. Al-Ekabi, Photocatalytic Purification and Treatment of Water and Air, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    G. Calzaferri, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Photochemical Transfer and Storage of Solar Energy, Elsevr, Amsterdam, 1995.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    M. Anpo, Surface Photochemistry, Wiley, Chichester, 1996.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    M.R. Hoffmann, S.T. Martin, W. Chio and D.W. Hahnemann, Chem. Rev. 95(1995)69.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    B. O'Regan and M. Gratzel, Nature 353(1991)737.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    E. Borgarello, J. Kiwi, M. Gratzel, E. Pelizzetti and M. Visca, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104(1982)2996.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    M. Anpo, N. Aikawa, S. Kodama and Y. Kubokawa, J. Phys. Chem. 84(1984)569; C. Yun, M. Anpo, S. Kodama and Y. Kubokawa, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 609(1980).Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    M. Anpo, N. Aikawa and Y. Kubokawa, J. Phys. Chem. 88(1984) 3998.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    M. Anpo, T. Shima and Y. Kubokawa, Chem. Lett. 1799(1985).Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    M. Anpo, N. Aikawa, Y. Kubokawa, M. Che, C. Louis and E. Giamello, J. Phys. Chem. 89(1985)5017; M. Anpo, N. Aikawa, Y. Kubokawa, M. Che, C. Louis and E. Giamello, ibid. 89(dy1985)5689.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    M. Anpo and Y. Ichihashi, Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Catalysis, The Taniguchi Conference, Kobe, 1995, p. 39.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    S. Kodama, H. Nakaya, M. Anpo and Y. Kubokawa, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 58(1985)3645.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    M. Anpo, M. Yabuta, S. Kodama and Y. Kubokawa, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 59(1986)259.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    M. Anpo, T. Shima, S. Kodama and Y. Kubokawa, J. Phys. Chem. 91(1987)4305.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    M. Anpo and Y. Kubokawa, Rev. Chem. Intermed. 8(1987)105.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    M. Anpo and Y. Kubokawa, in: Hikari-shokubai(Photocatalysis), Y. Kubokawa, K. Honda and Y. Saito, eds., Asakura-shoten, Tokyo, 1988.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    M. Anpo, H. Nakaya, S. Kodama, Y. Kubokwa, K. Domen and T. Onishi, J. Phys. Chem. 90(1986)1633.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    M. Anpo, T. Kawamura, S. Kodama, K. Maruya and T. Onishi, J. Phys. Chem. 92(1988)438.Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    M. Anpo, T. Shima and M. Che, Chem. Express 3(1988)403.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    M. Anpo, K. Chiba, M.A. Fox and M. Che, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 64(1991)543.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    H. Yamashita, N. Kamada, H. He, K. Tanaka and M. Anpo, Chem. Lett. 855(1994).Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    H. Yamada, H. Nishiguchi, M. Anpo and M.A. Fox, Res. Chem. Intermed. 20(1994)815.Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    M. Anpo, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ichihashi and S. Ehara, J. Electroanal. Chem. 396(1995)21.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    H. Yamashita, Y. Ichihashi, M. Harada, G. Stewart, M.A. Fox and M. Anpo, J. Catal. 158(1996)97.Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    M. Anpo, T. Shima, T. Fujii and M. Che, Chem. Lett. 65(1987).Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    M. Anpo and K. Chiba, J. Mol Catal. 74(1992)207.Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    M. Anpo, M. Tomonari and M.A. Fox, J. Phys. Chem. 93(1989) 7300.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    M. Anpo, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 38(1995)221.Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    H. Yamashita, Y. Ichihashi, M. Anpo, M. Hashimoto, C. Louis and M. Che, J. Phys. Chem. 100(1996)16041.Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    S.G. Zhang, Y. Ichihashi, H. Yamashita, T. Tatsumi and M. Anpo, Chem. Lett., 895(1996).Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    H. Yamashita and M. Anpo, Hyomen Kagaku (Surface Science) 17 (1996)30.Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    M. Anpo, S.G. Zhang and H. Yamashita, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Catalysis, Baltimore, 1996, p. 941.Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    M. Anpo, in: Presearch Opportunities in Photochemical Sciences, NREL, Colorado, 1996, p. 226.Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    Y. Ichihashi, H. Yamashita and M. Anpo, Kinouzairyou (Functional Materials) 16(1996)12.Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    M. Anpo, H. Yamashita and Y. Ichihashi, submitted for publication in Nature.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masakazu Anpo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations