Sex Roles

, Volume 39, Issue 7–8, pp 539–557 | Cite as

Women Networking for Peace and Survival in Chiapas: Militants, Celebrities, Academics, Survivors, and the Stiletto Heel Brigade

  • Susannah Glusker


Women in Mexico have been networking discreetlyfor centuries. They focus on survival and change. Thewomen working for the indigenous peoples of Chiapasinclude militants leading troops, celebrities raising funds and consciousness, victim-survivors of awar-torn area, volunteers shuttling news back and forthon the internet, and an invisible stiletto heel brigade.Together they struggle against what is now called a “low-intensity” war,networking for peace.


Social Psychology Indigenous People Woman Networking Stiletto Heel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amnesty International. (1996, August 14). AI Index: AMR 41/44/96.Google Scholar
  2. Associated Press. (1995, November 11). Mexico Indians seek autonomy. Posted to the on internet.Google Scholar
  3. Arnold, C., & Jimenez, M. (1995, November 1). Posted to the on the internet by moonlight@igc.apc.orgGoogle Scholar
  4. Barry, T. (1995). Zapata's revenge. Boston, MA: South End Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bellinghausen, H. (1996, October 10). Ramona will represent the EZLN at the National Indigenous Congress. (S. Saravia, Nuevo Amanecer Press, Washington, DC, Trans.) La Jornada. Posted to the on internet.Google Scholar
  6. Bellinghausen, H. (1997, March 5). La Jornada. Posted to the on internet by Website: indioseu.htmlGoogle Scholar
  7. Brenner, A. (1970). Idols behind altars. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. (Original work published in 1929 in New York: Payson and Clark.)Google Scholar
  8. Brenner, A. (1976). The wind that swept Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press. (Original work published 1943.)Google Scholar
  9. Bruhm (1997). Taking on Goliath. University Park, The Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cabildo, M. (1995, November 6). Proceso. (S. Glusker Trans.). Posted to Chiapas-list@profmexis.sar.netGoogle Scholar
  11. Cornelius, W. A. (1996). Mexican politics in transition. San Diego: Center for U.S.-Mexican Struggles, University of California.Google Scholar
  12. CROSSLINES Global Report (1994). Posted to the on internet.Google Scholar
  13. Elmendorf, M. (1971). Role of women as agents for peaceful social change. Ottawa: Society for International Development, mimeo.Google Scholar
  14. Elmendorf, M. (1972). La mujer Maya y el cambio. Mexico: Biblioteca SEP-Setentas No. 85. 1972. (Also published in English as The Mayan woman and change. Cuernavaca, Mexico: Centro Intercultural de Documentación, CIDOC, Cuaderno No. 81.)Google Scholar
  15. Elmendorf, M. (1976). Nine Mayan women: A village faces change. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. Elmendorf, M. (1976). The dilemmas of peasant women: A view from a village in Yucatan. In I. Tinker & M. Bo Bramsen (Ed.), Women and world development. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, Overseas Development Council.Google Scholar
  17. Elmendorf, M. (1977). Mexico: The many worlds of women. In G. Zollinger, J. Chapman, & A. Chapman Smock (Eds.), Women. Roles and status in eight countries. New York, London, Sydney, Toronto: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Elmendorf, M. (1994, March 20–26). The wisdom of the Maya. Paper presented at the 43rd Annual Conference of the Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida.Google Scholar
  19. Esponda Jimeno, V. M., Pincemin Deliberos, S., & Rosas Ifuri, M. (1993) Antropología Mesoamericana. Homenaje a Alfonso Villa Rojas [Meso-american anthropology; Homage to Alfonso Villa Rojas]. Chiapas: Gobierno Estatal de Fomento a la Investigación y Difusión de la Cultura. DIF-Chiapas/Instituto Chiapaneco de Cultura.Google Scholar
  20. Fuentes, “Carlos Fuentes Speaks on Chiapas.” Posted to the on internet by Austin Comité de Solidaridad con Chiapas. Chiapas-L.Google Scholar
  21. La Jornada. (1995, September, 7). Posted to the on internet.Google Scholar
  22. La Jornada. (1995, November 3). Posted to the on internet.Google Scholar
  23. Kampwirth, K. (1997, April) From feminine guerrillas to feminist revolutionaries: Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chiapas. Paper presented at the Latin American Studies Association, Guadalajara, Mexico.Google Scholar
  24. La Botz, D. (1995). Democracy in Mexico: Peasant rebellion and political reform. Boston: South End Press.Google Scholar
  25. Lipschutz, A. (1963) El problema racial en la conquista de América. México, Espa a, Argentina: Siglo Veintiuno Editores.Google Scholar
  26. Marcos, S. (1996, May 6). Cocinando La Realidad: Nosotras, en la reunion contra el neoliberalismo y por la humanidad. [Cooking the town of La Realidad; we, at the meeting against neoliberalism and for humanity]. La Jornada.Google Scholar
  27. Morris, S. D. (1995). Political reformism in Mexico. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reiner Publishers.Google Scholar
  28. Pastors for Peace. (1996, July 24). Women in solidarity across the lines of demarcation: A report on the IFCO Pastors for Peace Women's Delegation to Chiapas. Posted to the on internet by Pastors for Peace via solidarity@uibero.uia.mxGoogle Scholar
  29. Petrich, B. (1996, March 10) Crece en México la violencia hacia Mujeres Indígenas y Activistas: AI. [Violence towards indigenous and activist women growing in Mexico, by Amnesty International] La Jornada.Google Scholar
  30. Petrich, B. (1996, March 11) AI: México no cumple en proteger a defensores de derechos humanos. [Amnesty International reports that Mexico does not protect human rights defenders.] La Jornada.Google Scholar
  31. Poniatowska, E. (1997) “Mujeres, medios y democracia.” [Women, media and democracy] Paper presented at Women and Media Conference, in Mexico City.Google Scholar
  32. Ramona: Mujer, Indigena, Rebelde. [Ramona: an indigenous rebel woman]. (video) Producciones Colectivo. Perfíl Urbano A.C., México, DF. Distribuidora Zapatecos No. 7, Bis.Google Scholar
  33. Rashkin, P. (1995, September 5) Posted to the on internet.Google Scholar
  34. ReCruz, A. (1996). The two Milpas of Chan Kom: A study of socioeconomic and political transformations in a maya community. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  35. Redfield, R. (1953). The primitive world and its transformations. Ithaca, NY: Great Seal Books.Google Scholar
  36. Redfield, R. (1956, 1963). The little community and peasant society and culture. Chicago & London: Phoenix Books/University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  37. Redfield, R. (1962). A village that chose progress. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  38. Redfield, R., & Villa Rojas, A. (1934). Chan Kom, A Maya village. Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  39. Rodriguez, R., & Gonzalez, P. (1977, March 7). LATINO SPECTRUM. “Winds of Change Blow through Mexico.” Chronicle Features, San Francisco. Posted to the on internet.Google Scholar
  40. Rojas, R. (1995). Chiapas, la paz violenta. [Chiapas, a violent peace] México: La Jornada Ediciones.Google Scholar
  41. Ross, J. (1997, Jan/Feb). Zapata's children. NACLA, 30(4), 30–35.Google Scholar
  42. Salas, E. (1990). Soldaderas in the Mexican military. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  43. Schulz, D. E., & Williams, E. J. (Eds.). (1995). Mexico faces the 21st century. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  44. [Unidentified witness report about Comandante Ramona at the National University in Mexico]. (1997, March 11). Posted to the on internet by Marco A. 〈 Scholar
  45. Video produced by an unidentified witness. Sold through the on internet from Canada.Google Scholar
  46. Villa Rojas, A. (1973, Oct.–Dec.). Notas sobre los Zoques de Chiapas, México [Notes on the zoque people of Chiapas, Mexico]. America Indigena, 33(4).Google Scholar
  47. Villa Rojas, A. (1987). Los elegidos de Dios. Etnografía de los Mayas de Quintana Roo [God's chosen. Ethnography of the Quintana Roo Mayans]. Mexico: Instituto Nacional Indigenista.Google Scholar
  48. Villa Rojas, A. (1990) Etnografía Tzeltal de Chiapas. Modalidades de una cosmovisión prehispánica [Tzeltal ethnography in Chiapas, Modes of a pre-hispanic cosmovision]. Chiapas, Mexico: Gobierno del Estado de Chiapas, Consejo Estatal para el Fomento a la Investigación y Difusión de la Cultura.Google Scholar
  49. Villa Rojas, A. (1995). Estudios etnológicos: Los Mayas [Ethnographic studies: the Mayans]. Mexico, DF: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susannah Glusker

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations