Research in Higher Education

, Volume 40, Issue 4, pp 487–498

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACADEMIC DISHONESTY AND COLLEGE CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT

  • Kim Pulvers
  • George M. Diekhoff
Article

Abstract

The present study examined the relationshipbetween college classroom environment, academiccheating, and the neutralization (justification) ofacademic cheating. Two-hundred eighty undergraduatestudents from two liberal arts colleges in the Midwestparticipated in the study. Participants completed theCollege and University Classroom Environment Instrument(CUCEI) and the Survey on Academic Dishonesty (SAD), with instructions to complete thesequestionnaires (anonymously) in a manner that woulddescribe their perceptions, behavior, and attitudes inthe class in which the survey was completed. Three CUCEI scales were identified that discriminatedsignificantly between admitted cheaters and noncheaters.Cheaters described their classes as significantly lesspersonalized, satisfying, and task oriented than did noncheaters. Together, the seven scales ofthe CUCEI explained 4% of the variance in cheatingbehavior. Six CUCEI scales were found to be correlatedsignificantly with a measure of cheating neutralization. Specifically, neutralization increased withdecreases in perceived classroom personalization,involvement, student cohesiveness, satisfaction, taskorientation, and individualization. Together, the seven scales of the CUCEI explained 14% of thevariance in neutralization. It is concluded thatclassroom environment is a significant situationalvariable in academic dishonesty, as both cheatingbehavior and attitudes toward cheating are related toperceptions of classroom environment.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Barnett, D. C., and Dalton, J. C. (1981). Why college students cheat. Journal of College Student Personnel22: 545-551.Google Scholar
  2. Crowne, D. P., and Marlowe, D. (1964). The Approval Move. NewYork: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. Davis, S. F., Grover, C. A., Becker, A. H., and McGregor, L. N. (1992). Academic dishonesty: Prevalence, determinants, techniques, and punishments. Teaching of Psychology19(1): 16-120.Google Scholar
  4. Diekhoff, G. M., and Wigginton, P. K. (1992a). Assessing College Classroom Environment Using Free Description: A Methodological Demonstration(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 337 071).Google Scholar
  5. Diekhoff, G. M., and Wigginton, P. K. (1992b). Faculty perceptions of classroom environment. Studies in Higher Education17: 21-25.Google Scholar
  6. Diekhoff, G. M., LaBeff, E. E., Clark, R. E., Williams, L. E., Francis, B., and Haines, V. J. (1996). College cheating: Ten years later. Research in Higher Education37: 487-502.Google Scholar
  7. Diekhoff, G. M., LaBeff, E. E., Shinohara, K., and Yasukawa, H. (1999). College cheating in Japan and the United States. Research in Higher Education40(3): 343-353.Google Scholar
  8. Eisenberger, R., and Shank, D. M. (1985). Personal work ethic and effort training affect cheating. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology49: 520-528.Google Scholar
  9. Eve, R., and Bromley, D. G. (1981). Scholastic dishonesty among college undergraduates: Parallel test of two sociological explanations. Youth and Society13: 3-22.Google Scholar
  10. Forsyth, D. R., Pope, W. R., and McMillan, J. H. (1985). Students' reactions after cheating: An attributional analysis. Contemporary Educational Psychology10: 72-82.Google Scholar
  11. Fraser, B. J. (1986). Classroom Environment. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  12. Fraser, B. J. (1987). Use of classroom environment assessments in school psychology. School Psvchology International8: 205-219.Google Scholar
  13. Fraser, B. J. (1989). Twenty years of classroom climate work: Progress and prospect. Journal of Curriculum Studies21(4): 307-327.Google Scholar
  14. Fraser, B. J., and Fisher, D. L. (1982). Predicting students' outcomes from their perceptions of classroom psychosocial environment. American Educational Research Journal19: 498-578.Google Scholar
  15. Fraser, B. J., Treagust, D. F., and Dennis, N. C. (1986). Development of an instrument for assessing classroom psychosocial environment at universities and colleges. Studies in Higher Education11(1): 43-54.Google Scholar
  16. Gehring, D., Nuss, E., and Pavela, G. (1986). Issues and Perspectives on Academic Integrity. Columbus, OH: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators.Google Scholar
  17. Haertel, G. D., Walberg, J. H., and Haertel, E. H. (1981). Sociopsychological environments and learning. A quantitative synthesis. British Educational Research Journal7: 27-36.Google Scholar
  18. Haines, V. J., Diekhoff, G. M., LaBeff E. E., and Clark, R. E. (1986). College cheating: Immaturity, lack of commitment, and the neutralizing attitude. Research in Higher Education25(4): 342-354.Google Scholar
  19. Haladyna, T., Shaughnessy, J., and Redsun, A. (1982). Relation of student, teacher, and learning environment variables to attitudes toward social studies. Journal of Social Studies Research6: 36-44.Google Scholar
  20. Harty, H., and Hassan, H. A. (1983). Student control ideology and the science classroom environment in urban secondary schools of Sudan. Journal of Research in Science Teaching20: 851-859.Google Scholar
  21. Houston, J. P. (1976). The assessment and prevention of answer copying on undergraduate multiple-choice examinations. Research in Higher Education5: 301-311.Google Scholar
  22. Jendrek, M. P. (1989). Faculty reactions to academic dishonesty. Journal of College Student Development30: 401-406.Google Scholar
  23. Kohlberg, L. (1973). Continuities in childhood and adult moral development revisited. In P. Baltes and K. W. Schaie (eds.), Life-span Development Psychology: Personality and Socialization. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  24. LaBeff, E. E., Clark, R. E., Haines, V. J., and Diekhoff, G. M. (1990). Situational ethics and college cheating. Sociological Inquiry60: 190-198.Google Scholar
  25. Lawrence, F. P. and Welch, W. W. (1983). Student perceptions of science classes taught by males and females. Journal of Research in Science Teaching20: 655-662.Google Scholar
  26. Maramark, S., and Maline, M. B. (1993). Academic Dishonesty Among College Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  27. May, K. M., and Loyd, B. (1993). Academic dishonesty: The honor system and students' attitudes. Journal of College Student Development34(2): 125-129.Google Scholar
  28. McCabe, D. L. (1992). The influence of situational ethics on cheating among college students. Sociological Inquiry, 62(3): 365-374.Google Scholar
  29. McCabe, D., and Bowers, W. (1996). The relationship between student cheating and college fraternity or sorority membership. NASPA Journal33: 280-291.Google Scholar
  30. McCabe, D. L., and Trevino, L. K. (1993). Academic dishonesty: Honor codes and other contextual influences. Journal of Higher Education64(5): 522-538.Google Scholar
  31. McCabe, D., and Trevino, L. (1996). What we know about cheating in college. Change28: 28-35.Google Scholar
  32. Michaels, J. W. (1989). Applying theories of deviance to academic cheating. Social Science Quarterly70: 870-885.Google Scholar
  33. Stern, E. B., and Havlicek, L. (1986). Academic misconduct: Results of faculty and undergraduate student surveys. Journal of Allied Health5: 129-142.Google Scholar
  34. Sykes, G., and Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review22: 664-670.Google Scholar
  35. Vahala, M. E., and Winston, R. B. College classroom environments: Disciplinary and institutional-type differences and effects on academic achievement in introductory courses. Innovative Higher Education19: 99-121.Google Scholar
  36. Ward, D., and Beck, W. (1990). Gender and dishonesty. Journal of Social Psychology130: 333-339.Google Scholar
  37. Welch, W. W. (1979). Curricular and longitudinal effects on learning environments. In J. J. Walberg (ed.), Educational Environments and Effects: Evaluation, Policy and Productivity, pp. 167-169. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.Google Scholar
  38. Welsh, J. F. (1993). Student dishonesty in higher education: Social context and institution response. Unpublished report, Kansas Board of Regents, Topeka, KansasGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kim Pulvers
  • George M. Diekhoff

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations