Advertisement

Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 401–423 | Cite as

Ruminative Response Style and Vulnerability to Episodes of Dysphoria: Gender, Neuroticism, and Episode Duration

  • John E. Roberts
  • Eva Gilboa
  • Ian H. Gotlib
Article

Abstract

A number of recent laboratory and prospectivefield studies suggest that the tendency to ruminateabout dysphoric moods is associated with more severe andpersistent negative emotional experiences (e.g., Morrow & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1990;Nolen-Hoeksema & Morrow, 1991). The current paperreports two studies that tested the hypotheses that (a)ruminative response styles act as a trait vulnerabilityto dysphoria, particularly to relativelypersistent episodes of dysphoria; (b) aspects ofrumination that are not likely to be contaminated withthe presence and severity of previous symptomatology(introspection/self-isolation, self-blame) demonstrate vulnerability effects;and (c) rumination mediates the effects of gender andneuroticism on vulnerability to dysphoria. Consistentsupport was found for each of these hypotheses. Overall, our data suggest that rumination mightreflect an important cognitive manifestation ofneuroticism that increases vulnerability to episodes ofpersistent dysphoria.

DYSPHORIA RUMINATIVE RESPONSE STYLE NEUROTICISM 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders(4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Angst, J., Merikangas, K., Scheidegger, P., & Wicki, W. (1990). Recurrent brief depression: A new subtype of affective disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 19,87–98.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4,561–571.Google Scholar
  4. Blazer, D. G., Kessle, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., & Swartz, M. S. (1994). The prevalence and distribution of major depression in a national community sample: The National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151,979–986.Google Scholar
  5. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences(2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  6. Coyne, J. C. (1994). Self-reported distress: Analog or ersatz depression? Psychological Bulletin, 116,29–45.Google Scholar
  7. Derryberry, D., & Reed, M. A. (1994). Temperament and attention: Orienting toward and away from positive and negative signals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66,1128–1139.Google Scholar
  8. Duggan, C. F., Lee, A. S., & Murray, R. M. (1990). Does personality predict long-term outcome in depression? British Journal of Psychiatry, 157,19–24.Google Scholar
  9. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, M. W. (1985). Personality and individual differences: A natural science approach.New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  10. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1964). Eysenck Personality Inventory.San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.Google Scholar
  11. Gotlib, I. H., Gilboa, E., & Sommerfeld, B. K. (in press). Cognitive functioning in depression: Nature and origins. In R. J. Davidson (Ed.), Wisconsin Symposium on Emotion(Vol. 1). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Gotlib, I. H., & Hammen, C. L. (1992). Psychological aspects of depression: Toward a cognitive-interpersonal integration.Chichester, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Gotlib, I. H., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Seeley, J. R. (1995). Symptoms versus a diagnosis of depression: Differences in psychosocial functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63,90–100.Google Scholar
  14. Hirschfeld, R. M. A., Klerman, G. L., Lavori, P., Keller, M. B., Griffith, P., & Coryell, W. (1989). Premorbid personality assessments of first onset of major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46,345–350.Google Scholar
  15. Joreskog, K. G., & Sorbom, D. (1989). LISREL 7: A guide to the program and applications(2nd ed.). Chicago: SPSS.Google Scholar
  16. Just, N., & Alloy, L. B. (1997). The response styles theory of depression: Tests and extension of the theory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106,221–229.Google Scholar
  17. Kendall, P. C., Hollon, S. D., Beck, A. T., Hammen, C. L., & Ingram, R. E. (1987). Issues and recommendations regarding the use of the Beck Depression Inventory. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11,289–299.Google Scholar
  18. Kendell, R. E., & DiScipio, W. J. (1968). Eysenck Personality Inventory scores of patients with depressive illnesses. British Journal of Psychiatry, 114,767–770.Google Scholar
  19. Kendler, K. S., Kessler, R. C., Neale, M. C., Heath, A. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1993a). The prediction of major depression in women: Toward an integrated etiologic model. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150,1139–1148.Google Scholar
  20. Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Heath, A. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1993b). The lifetime history of major depression in women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50,863–870.Google Scholar
  21. Larsen, R. J. (1992). Neuroticism and bias in the encoding and recall of physical symptoms: Evidence from a combined prospective-retrospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62,480–488.Google Scholar
  22. Martin, M. (1985). Neuroticism as predisposition toward depression: A cognitive mechanism. Personality and Individual Differences, 6,353–365.Google Scholar
  23. Morrow, J., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1990). Effects of responses to depression on the remediation of depressive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58,519–527.Google Scholar
  24. Nolan, S., Roberts, J. E., & Gotlib, I. H. (in press). Neuroticism and ruminative response style as predictors of change in depressive symptomatology. Cognitive Therapy and Research. Google Scholar
  25. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1987). Sex differences in unipolar depression: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 101,259–282.Google Scholar
  26. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100,569–582.Google Scholar
  27. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61,115–121.Google Scholar
  28. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1993). Effects of rumination and distraction on naturally occurring depressed mood. Cognition and Emotion, 7,561–570.Google Scholar
  29. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Morrow, J., & Fredrickson, B. L. (1993). Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102,20–28.Google Scholar
  30. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Parker, L. E., & Larson, J. (1994). Ruminative coping with depressed mood following loss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67,92–104.Google Scholar
  31. Persons, J. B., & Miranda, J. (1992). Cognitive theories of vulnerability to depression: Reconciling negative evidence. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16,485–502.Google Scholar
  32. Roberts, J. E., & Gotlib, I. H. (1997a). Lifetime episodes of dysphoria: Gender, early childhood loss, and personality. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36,195–208.Google Scholar
  33. Roberts, J. E., & Gotlib, I. H. (1997b). Social support and personality in depression: Implications from quantitative genetics. In G. R. Pierce, B. Lakey, I. G. Sarason, & B. R. Sarason (Eds.), Social support and personality: Structure, process, and change.(pp. 187–214). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  34. Rohde, P., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Seeley, J. R. (1990) Are people changed by the experience of having an episode of depression? A further test of the scar hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99,264–271.Google Scholar
  35. Segal, Z. V., & Ingram, R. E. (1994). Mood priming and construct activation in tests of cognitive vulnerability to unipolar depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 14,663–695.Google Scholar
  36. Sorenson, S. B., Rutter, C. M., & Aneshensel, C. S. (1991). Depression in the community: An investigation into age of onset. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59,541–546.Google Scholar
  37. Teasdale, J. D. (1988). Cognitive vulnerability to persistent depression. Cognition and Emotion, 2,247–274.Google Scholar
  38. Tennen, H., Hall, J. A., & Affleck, G. (1995). Depression research methodologies in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology:A review and critique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68,870–884.Google Scholar
  39. Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states. Psychological Bulletin, 96,465–490.Google Scholar
  40. Weissman, M. M., Prusoff, B. A., & Klerman, G. L. (1978). Personality and the prediction of long-term outcome of depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135,797–800.Google Scholar
  41. Zimmerman, M., & Coryell, W. (1987). The Inventory to Diagnose Depression, Lifetime Version. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 75,495–499.Google Scholar
  42. Zimmerman, M., Coryell, W., Corenthal, C., & Wilson, S. (1986). A self-report scale to diagnose major depressive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43,1076–1081.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • John E. Roberts
  • Eva Gilboa
  • Ian H. Gotlib

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations