Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 407–418 | Cite as

Smoking and Drinking Behavior in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: Effects of Behavioral Self-Blame and Perceived Control

  • Alan J. Christensen
  • Patricia J. Moran
  • Shawna L. Ehlers
  • Katherine Raichle
  • Lucy Karnell
  • Gerry Funk
Article

Abstract

Patients who continue to use tobacco or alcohol following treatment for head and neck cancers are at greater risk for cancer recurrence and mortality. The present study examined the effects of behavioral self-blame and perceived control over health on smoking and alcohol use in a sample of 55 patients with cancers of the head and neck. Measures of self-blame, perceived control, and depression were administered and an assessment of past and current smoking and drinking behavior was obtained. As anticipated, continued smoking after completion of oncologic treatment was predicted by the interaction of behavior specific self-blame and perceived control. Patients who attributed the cause of their cancer to their past substance use exhibited a lower likelihood of smoking only if they also held the expectancy that their future cancer-related health was contingent on their own behavior. Among patients not holding the belief that cancer recurrence was contingent on their own actions, self-blame was associated with a higher probability of continued smoking. Self-blame and perceived control had no effect on continued alcohol use.

SELF-BLAME PERCEIVED CONTROL SMOKING CANCER 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Beck, A., Steer, R. and Garbin, M. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 8: 77-100.Google Scholar
  2. Beck, A., Ward, C., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., and Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 4: 561-571.Google Scholar
  3. Christensen, A. J., Smith, T. W., Turner, C. W., and Cundick, K. E. (1994). Patient adherence and adjustment in renal dialysis: A person by treatment interactional approach. J. Behav. Med. 17: 549-566.Google Scholar
  4. Deleyiannis, F. W. B., Thomas, D. B., Vaughan, T. L., and Davis, S. (1996). Alcoholism: Independent predictor of survival in patients with head and neck cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 88: 542-549.Google Scholar
  5. Falk, R., Pickle, L., Brown, L., Mason, T., Buffler, P., and Fraumeni, J. (1989). Effect of smoking and alcohol consumption on laryngeal cancer risk in coastal Texas. Cancer Res. 49: 4024-4029.Google Scholar
  6. Gritz, E. R., Carr, C. R., Rapkin, D., Abemayor, E., Chang, L. C., and Wong, W. (1993). Predictors of long-term smoking cessation in head and neck cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2: 261-270.Google Scholar
  7. Horowitz, A. M., Nourjah, P., and Gift, H. C. (1995). U.S. adult knowledge of risk factors and signs of oral cancers. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 126: 39-45.Google Scholar
  8. Janoff-Bulman, R. (1979). Characterological versus behavioral self-blame: Inquiries into depression and rape. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 37: 1798-1809.Google Scholar
  9. Janoff-Bulman, R., and Wortman, C. (1977). Attributions of blame and coping in the “real world”: Severe accident victims react to their lot. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 35: 351-363.Google Scholar
  10. Kendall, P. C., Hollon, S. D., Beck, A. T., Hammen, C. L., and Ingram, R. E. (1987). Issues and recommendatio ns regarding the use of the Beck Depression Inventory. Cognit. Ther. Res. 3: 289-299.Google Scholar
  11. Malcarne, V., Compas, B., Epping-Jordan, J., and Howell, D. (1995). Cognitive factors in adjustment to cancer: Attributions of self-blame and perceptions of control. J. Behav. Med. 18: 401-418.Google Scholar
  12. Moore, C. (1971). Cigarette smoking and cancer of the mouth, pharynx, and larynx: A continuing study. JAMA 218: 553-558.Google Scholar
  13. Ostroff, J., Jacobsen, P., Moadel, A., Spiro, R., Shah, J., Strong, E., Kraus, D., and Schantz, S. (1995). Prevalence and predictors of continued tobacco use after treatment of patients with head and neck cancer. Cancer 75: 569-576.Google Scholar
  14. Patton, G. C., Carlin, J. B., Coffey, C., Wolfe, R., Hibbert, M., and Bowes, G. (1998). Depression, anxiety, and smoking initiation: A prospective study over 3 years. Am. J. Public Health 88: 1518-1522.Google Scholar
  15. Peck, J. R., Smith, T. W., Ward, J. R., and Milano, R. (1989). Disability and depression in rheumatoid arthritis: A multitrait-multimethod investigation. Arth. Rheum. 32: 1100-1106.Google Scholar
  16. Rabois, D., and Haaga, D. A. F. (1997). Cognitive coping, history of depression, and cigarette smoking. Addict. Behav. 22: 789-796.Google Scholar
  17. Shapiro, P., and Kornfeld, D. (1987). Psychiatric aspects of head and neck cancer surgery. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 10: 87-100.Google Scholar
  18. SPSS (1994). SPSS Advanced Statistics 6.1, SPSS Inc., Chicago.Google Scholar
  19. Stevens, M., Gardner, J., Parkin, J., and Johnson, L. (1983). Head and neck cancer survival and life-style change. Arch. Otolaryngol. 109: 746-749.Google Scholar
  20. Taylor, S. (1983). Adjustment to threatening events: A theory of cognitive adaptation. Am. Psychol. 38: 1161-1173.Google Scholar
  21. Taylor, S., Lichtman, R., and Wood, J. (1984). Attributions, beliefs about control, and adjustment to breast cancer. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 46: 489-502.Google Scholar
  22. Tennen, H., Affleck, G., Allen, D., McGrade, B., and Ratzan, S. (1984). Causal attributions and coping with insulin-dependent diabetes. Basic Appl. Soc. Psychol. 5: 131-142.Google Scholar
  23. Tennen, H., Affleck, G., and Gershman, K. (1986). Self-blame among parents of infants with perinatal complications: The role of self-protective motives. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 50: 690-696.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan J. Christensen
  • Patricia J. Moran
  • Shawna L. Ehlers
  • Katherine Raichle
  • Lucy Karnell
  • Gerry Funk

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations