Optical and Quantum Electronics

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 263–273

Difference between TE and TM modal gain in amplifying waveguides: analysis and assessment of two perturbation approaches

  • J. Haes
  • B. Demeulenaere
  • R. Baets
  • D. Lenstra
  • T.D. Visser
  • H. Blok
Article

Abstract

The commonly used confinement factor-based formula for modal gain in amplifying waveguides – gmod=Γgmat, with Γ a confinement factor – is well established and accurate for TE modes. The TM case is rarely, and sometimes erroneously, described in the literature. Using a variational formulation the fundamental difference between TE and TM modal gain is illustrated. An accurate expression, correct up to first order, for the TM modal gain is then derived from a known general perturbation formula. However, as this does not lead to a true confinement factor formulation, some approximations are introduced, leading to a unified formulation of both TE and TM modal gain. A second method to calculate the modal gain, based on the analyticity of the dispersion equation, is also discussed. Simulation and comparison with modal gain values from a complex mode solver will finally illustrate the validity of the different approaches.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Haes
    • 1
  • B. Demeulenaere
    • 1
  • R. Baets
    • 1
  • D. Lenstra
    • 2
  • T.D. Visser
    • 3
  • H. Blok
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Information Technology (INTEC)University of Gent-IMECGentBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Physics and AstronomyFree UniversityAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Electrical EngineeringDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations