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Chromosome Research

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 167–176 | Cite as

Comparative mapping of Xp22 genes in hominoids – evolutionary linear instability of their Y homologues

  • B. Gla¨ser
  • F. Gru¨tzner
  • K. Taylor
  • K. Schiebel
  • G. Meroni
  • K. Tsioupra
  • J. Pasantes
  • W. Rietschel
  • R. Toder
  • U. Willmann
  • S. Zeitler
  • P. Yen
  • A. Ballabio
  • G. Rappold
  • W. Schempp
Article

Abstract

Several genes located within or proximal to the human PAR in Xp22 have homologues on the Y chromosome and escape, or partly escape, inactivation. To study the evolution of Xp22 genes and their Y homologues, we applied multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to comparatively map DNA probes for the genes ANT3, XG, ARSD, ARSE (CDPX), PRK, STS, KAL and AMEL to prometaphase chromosomes of the human species and hominoid apes. We demonstrate that the genes residing proximal to the PAR have a highly conserved order on the higher primate X chromosomes but show considerable rearrangements on the Y chromosomes of hominoids. These rearrangements cannot be traced back to a simple model involving only a single or a few evolutionary events. The linear instability of the Y chromosomes gives some insight into the evolutionary isolation of large parts of the Y chromosomes and thus might reflect the isolated evolutionary history of the primate species over millions of years.

comparative mapping evolution hominoids X–Y homologous genes Y chromosome 

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Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Gla¨ser
    • 1
  • F. Gru¨tzner
    • 1
  • K. Taylor
    • 2
  • K. Schiebel
    • 3
  • G. Meroni
    • 4
  • K. Tsioupra
    • 2
  • J. Pasantes
    • 5
  • W. Rietschel
    • 6
  • R. Toder
    • 7
  • U. Willmann
    • 1
  • S. Zeitler
    • 1
  • P. Yen
    • 8
  • A. Ballabio
    • 4
  • G. Rappold
    • 3
  • W. Schempp
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Human Genetics and AntrhopologyUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.Galton LaboratoryUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Institute of Human Genetics and AnthropologyUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  4. 4.Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM)San Raffaele Biomedicale Science ParkMilanItaly
  5. 5.Laboratoria de Xene´tica, Departamento de Bioloxia FundamentalUniversidade de VigoVigoSpain
  6. 6.Zoologisch-botanischer Garten WilhelmaStuttgartGermany
  7. 7.School of Genetics and Human VariationLa Trobe UniversityMelbourne, BundooraAustralia
  8. 8.School of Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical CenterUniversity of California, Los AngelesTorranceUSA

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