Advertisement

Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 292–308 | Cite as

Drinking water and cancer

  • Kenneth P. Cantor
Article

Abstract

Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between contaminants in drinking water and cancer is reviewed. The reviewed studies cover exposure to: disinfection byproducts; nitrate; arsenic and other metals; volatiles and contaminants from hazardous waste sites; asbestiform fibers; radionuclides; and fluoride. Most investigations are ecologic, with some confirmation of elevated risk from individual-based studies. In the case of waterborne arsenic, and possibly chlorination byproducts, there is a consistent but small body of epidemiologic evidence of an association with one or more types of cancer. Nitrate in groundwater has increased greatly over the years, and the demonstration of endogenous nitrosation among highly exposed subjects raises concern of elevated cancer risk. However, the epidemiologic data are not yet sufficient to draw a conclusion. There is a diversity of studies among populations exposed to water contaminated with pesticides, volatile organics, or mixtures from hazardous waste sites. Studies of asbestiform fibers and radionuclides in water are not conclusive, but there are suggested elevations of several cancer sites in highly exposed populations. There is no suggestion that fluoride in drinking water is linked with elevated risk of cancer. As topics for epidemiologic evaluation, drinking water contaminants pose methodologic problems common to studies designed to detect relatively small elevations in risk, with the added challenge of assessing exposures for many years in the past. Nevertheless, epidemiologic assessment is valuable and clearly warranted, given the potential public health impact of small risk elevations among very large exposed populations, and the limitations of toxicologic experiments in assessing carcinogenic risk of complex mixtures or of compounds for which appropriate animal models are not available.

Arsenic asbestos cancer disinfection byproducts drinking water fluoride nitrate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Dayan AD. Carcinogenicity and drinking water. Pharmacol Toxicol 1993; 72(Suppl 1): 108–15.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Some Metals and Metallic Compounds. Lyon: France: IARC, 1980; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vol. 23.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Chlorinated Drinking-Water; Chlorination By-Products; Some Other Halogenated Compounds; Cobalt and Cobalt Compounds. Lyon, France: IARC, 1991; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Humans, Vol. 52. Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rook JJ. Formation of haloforms during chlorination of natural waters. J Soc Water Treat Exam 1974; 23: 234–43.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bellar TA, Lichtenberg JJ. Determining volatile organics at microgram-per-liter levels by gas chromatograpy. J Am Water Works Assoc 1974; 66: 739–44.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Krasner SW, McGuire MJ, Jacangelo JG, Patania NL, Reagan KM, Aieta EM. The occurrence of disinfection by-products in U.S. drinking water. J Am Water Works Assoc 1989; 81: 41–53.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andelman JB. Total exposure to volatile organic com-pounds in potable water. In: Ram NM, Christman RF, Cantor KP, eds. Significance and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water Supplies. Chelsea, MI (USA): Lewis Publishers, 1990: 485–504.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jo WK, Weisel CP, Lioy PJ. Routes of chloroform exposure and body burden from showering with chlorinated tap water. Risk Anal 1990; 10: 575–80.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weisel CP, Jo WK. Ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposures to chloroform and trichloroethene from tap water. Environ Health Perspect 1996; 104: 48–51.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weisel CP, Chen WJ. Exposure to chlorination by-products from hot water uses. Risk Anal 1994; 14: 101–6.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stevens AA, Moore LA, Miltner RJ. Formation and control of non-trihalomethane disinfection by-products. J Am Water Works Assoc 1989; 81: 54–60.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bull RJ, Birnbaum LS, Cantor KP,et al. Water chlorination: Essential process or cancer hazard? (Symposium Over-view). Fundam Appl Toxicol 1995; 28: 155–66.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cheh AM, Skochdopole J, Koski P, Cole L. Nonvolatile mutagens in drinking water: Production by chlorination and destruction by sulfite. Science 1979; 207: 90–2.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Holmbom B, Voss RH, Mortimer RD, Wong A. Isolation and identification of an Ames mutagenic compound present in draft chlorination effluents. Tappi 1981; 64: 172–4.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Salg J. Cancer mortality rates and drinking water in 346 counties of the ohio river valley basin. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (USA), 1977.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kuzma RJ, Kuzma CM, Buncher CR. Ohio drinking water source and cancer rates. Am J Public Health 1977; 67: 725–9.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Page T, Harris RH, Epstein SS. Drinking water and cancer mortality in Louisiana. Science 1976; 193: 55–7.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cantor KP, Hoover R, Mason TJ, McCabe LJ. Associations of cancer mortality with halomethanes in drinking water. JNCI 1978; 61: 979–85.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hogan MD, Chi P-Y, Hoel DG. Association between chloroform levels in finished drinking water supplies and various site-specific cancer mortality rates. J Environ Pathol Toxicol 1979; 2: 873–87.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wigle DT, Mao Y, Semenciw R, Smith MH, Toft P. Contaminants in drinking water and cancer risks in Canadian cities. Can J Public Health 1986; 77: 335–42.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morin MM, Sharrett AR, Bailey KR, Fabsitz RR. Drinking water source and mortality in US cities. Int J Epidemiol 1985; 14: 254–64.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bean JA, Isacson P, Hausler WJ, Kohler J. Drinking water and cancer incidence in Iowa: I. Trends and incidence by source of drinking water and size of municipality. Am J Epidemiol 1982; 116: 912–23.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Isacson P, Bean JA, Lynch C. Relationship of cancer inci-dence rates in Iowa municipalities to chlorination status of drinking water. In: Jolley RL, Brungs WA, Cotruvo JA, Cumming RB, Mattice JS, Jacobs VA, eds. Water Chlori-nation: Environmental Impact and Health Effects Volume4. Ann Arbor, MI (USA): Ann Arbor Science, 1983: 1353–63.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Flaten TP. Chlorination of drinking water and cancer incidence in Norway. Int J Epidemiol 1992; 21: 6–15.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Morales Suarez-Varela MM, Llopis Gonzalez A, Tejerizo Perez ML, Ferrer Caraco E. Chlorination of drinking water and cancer incidence. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 1994; 13: 39–41.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Koivusalo M, Jaakkola JJK, Vartiainen T,et al. Drinking water mutagenicity and gastrointestinal and urinary tract cancers: An ecological study in Finland. AmJ Public Health 1994; 84: 1223–8.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Koivusalo M, Vartiainen T, Hakulinen T, Pukkala E, Jaakkola JJK. Drinking water mutagenicity and leukemia, lymphomas, and cancer of the liver, pancreas, and soft tissue. Arch Environ Health 1995; 50: 269–76.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Alavanja M, Goldstein I, Susser M. A case control study of gastrointestinal and urinary tract cancer mortality and drinking water chlorination. In: Jolley RL, Gorchev H, Hamilton DH Jr, eds. Water Chlorination: Environmental Impact and Health Effects Volume 2. Ann Arbor, MI (USA): Ann Arbor Science, 1978: 395–409.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Young TB, Kanarek MS, Tsiatis AA. Epidemiologic study of drinking water chlorination and Wisconsin female cancer mortality. JNCI 1981; 67: 1191–8.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brenniman GR, Vasilomanolakis-Lagos J, Amsel J, Namekata T, Wolff AH. Case-control study of cancer deaths in Illinois communities served by chlorinated or nonchlorinated water. In: Jolley RL, Brungs WA, Cumming RB, eds. Water Chlorination: Environmental Impact and Health Effects, Vol. 3. Ann Arbor, MI (USA): Ann Arbor Science, 1980: 1043–57.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Crump KS, Guess HA. Drinking water and cancer: Review of recent epidemiological findings and assessment of risks. Annu Rev Public Health 1982; 3: 339–57.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gottlieb MS, Carr JK. Case-control cancer mortality study and chlorination of drinking water in Louisiana. Environ Health Perspect 1982; 46: 169–77.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lawrence CE, Taylor PR, Trock BJ, Reilly AA. Triha-lomethanes in drinking water and human colorectal cancer. JNCI 1984; 72: 563–8.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zierler S, Feingold L, Danley RA, Craun G. Bladder cancer in Massachusetts related to chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water: A case-control study. Arch Environ Health 1988; 43: 195–200.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cragle DL, Shy CM, Struba RJ, Siff EJ. A case-control study of colon cancer and water chlorination in North Carolina. In: Jolley RL, Bull RJ, Davis WP, Katz S, Roberts MH Jr, Jacobs VA, eds. Water Chlorination: Chemistry, Environmental Impact and Health Effects. Volume 5. Chelsea, MI (USA): Lewis Publishers, Inc., 1985: 153–60.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Young TB, Wolf DA, Kanarek MS. Case-control study of colon cancer and drinking water trihalomethanes in Wisconsin. Int J Epidemiol 1987; 16: 190–7.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cantor KP, Lynch CF, Hildesheim M,et al. Drinking water source and chlorination byproducts in Iowa: I. Risk of bladder cancer. Epidemiology (in press).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hildesheim ME, Cantor KP, Lynch CF,et al. Drinking water source and chlorination byproducts in Iowa: II. Risk of colon and rectal cancers. Epidemiology (in press).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cantor KP, Lynch CF, Hildesheim M. Chlorination by-products in drinking water and risk of bladder, rectal, brain and other cancers: A case-control epidemiologic study in Iowa [Abstract]. Proceedings: The Future Uses of Chlorine: Issues in Education, Research, and Policy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, (USA) 1996.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    McGeehin MA, Reif JS, Becher J, Mangione EJ. A case-control study of bladder cancer and water disinfection methods in Colorado. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 138: 492–501.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Marrett LD, King WD. Great Lakes Basin Cancer Risk Assessment: A case-control study of cancers of the bladder, colon,and rectum. Ottawa, Canada: Bureau of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Health Canada, 1995.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    King WD, Marrett LD. Case-control study of bladder cancer and chlorination by-products in treated water. Cancer Causes Control 1996; 7: 596–604.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    IJsselmuiden CB, Gaydos C, Feighner B,et al. Cancer of the pancreas and drinking water: A population-based case-control study in Washington County, Maryland. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136: 836–42.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Freedman DM, Cantor KP, Lee NL,et al. Bladder cancer and drinking water: A population-based case-control study in Washington County, Maryland. Cancer Causes Control 1997; (in press).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cantor KP, Hoover R, Hartge P,et al. Bladder cancer, drinking water source, and tap water consumption: A case-control study. JNCI 1987; 79: 1269–79.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wilkins JR III, Comstock GW. Source of drinking water at home and site-specific cancer incidence in Washington County, Maryland. Am J Epidemiol 1981; 114: 178–90.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Vena JE, Graham S, Freudenheim J,et al. Drinking water, fluid intake, and bladder cancer in Western New York. Arch Environ Health 1993; 48: 191–8.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jensen OM, Wahrendorf J, Knudsen JB, Sorensen BL. The Copenhagen case-control study of bladder cancer. II. Effect of coffee and other beverages. Int J Cancer 1986; 37: 651–7.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Claude J, Kunze E, Frentzel-Beyme R, Paczkowski K, Schneider J, Schubert H. Life-style and occupational risk factors in cancer of the lower urinary tract. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 124: 578–89.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Slattery ML, West DW, Robison LM. Fluid intake and bladder cancer in Utah. Int J Cancer 1988; 42: 17–22.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    US Environmental Protection Agency. Another look: National Survey of Pesticides in Drinking Water Wells. Phase II Report. Washington, DC: USEPA, 1992.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hargett NL. 1972 Fertilizer Summary Data. Muscle Shoals, AL (USA): National Fertilizer Development Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, 1972.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Berry JT. Summary Data, 1992. Muscle Shoals, AL (USA): National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center, Tennessee Valley Authority, 1992.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. An Annual Review of World Production and Consumption of Fertilizers: 1953. Rome, Italy: FAO, 1953.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO Yearbook, 1992: Fertilizers, Vol. 42. Rome, Italy: FAO, 1993.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hallberg GR, Keeney DR. Nitrate. In: Alley WM, ed. Regional Ground-water Quality. New York, NY (USA): Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993: 297–322.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mueller DK, Hamilton PA, Helsel DR, Hitt KJ, Ruddy BC. Nutrients in Ground Water and Surface Water of the United States-An Analysis of Data through 1992. Water-Resources Investigations Report 95–4031. Denver,CO (USA): US Geological Survey, 1995.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kross BC, Hallberg GR, Bruner DR, Cherryholmes K, Johnson JK. The nitrate contamination of private well water in Iowa. Am J Public Health 1993; 83: 270–2.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Johnson CJ, Kross BC. Continuing importance of nitrate contamination of groundwater and wells in rural areas. Am J Ind Med 1990; 18: 449–56.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    National Academy of Sciences Committee on Nitrite and Alternative Curing Agents in Food. The Health Effects of Nitrate, Nitrite, and N-Nitroso Compounds. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1981.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chilvers C, Inskip H, Caygill C, Bartholomew B, Fraser P, Hill M. A survey of dietary nitrate in well-water users. Int J Epidemiol 1984; 13: 324–31.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Eisenbrand G, Speigelhalder B, Preussmann R. Nitrate and nitrite in saliva. Oncology 1980; 37: 227–31.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tannenbaum SR, Weisman M, Fett D. The effect of nitrate intake on nitrite formation in human saliva. Food Cosmet Toxicol 1976; 14: 549–52.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Some N-Nitroso Compounds. Lyon, France: IARC, 1978; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vol. 17. Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ohshima H, Bartsch H. Quantitative estimation of endoge-nous nitrasation in humans by monitoring N-nitrosoproline excreted in the urine. Cancer Res 1981; 41:3658–62.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lu SH, Ohshima H, Fu HM,et al. Urinary excretion of N-nitrosamino acids and nitrate by inhabitants of high-and low-risk areas for esophageal cancer in Northern China: Endogenous formation of nitrosoproline and its inhibition by vitamin C. Cancer Res 1986; 46: 1485–91.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zeng Y, Ohshima H, Bouvier G,et al. Urinary excretion of nitrosamino acids and nitrate by inhabitants of high-and low-risk areas for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in southern China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1993; 2: 195–200.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Knight T, Forman D, Leach SA,et al. The N-nitrosoproline test as a measure of cancer risk in geographical comparison studies: Results from Italy and an overall comparison. In: O'Neill IK, Chen J, Bartsch H, eds. Relevance to Human Cancer of N-Nitroso Compounds, Tobacco Smoke and Mycotoxins. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1991: 146–51.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zatonski W, Ohshima H, Przewozniak K,et al. Urinary excretion of N-nitrosamino acids and nitrate by inhabitants of high-and low-risk areas for stomach cancer in Poland. Int J Cancer 1989; 44: 823–7.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wu Y, Chen J, Ohshima H,et al. Geographic association between urinary excretion of N-nitroso compounds and oesophageal cancer mortality in China. Int J Cancer 1993; 54: 713–9.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Moller H, Landt J, Pedersen E, Jensen P, Autrup H, Jensen OM. Endogenous nitrosation in relation to nitrate exposure from drinking water and diet in a Danish rural population. Cancer Res 1989; 49: 3117–21.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mirvish SS, Grandjean AC, Moller H,et al. N-Nitroso-proline excretion by rural Nebraskans drinking water of varied nitrate content. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1992; 1: 455–61.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zaldivar R, Wetterstrand WH. Nitrate nitrogen levels in drinking water of urban areas with high-and low-risk popu-lations for stomach cancer. Z Krebsforsch 1978; 92: 227–34.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zemla B. Apossible association between quality of drinking water and stomach cancer incidence among native and immigrant populations of a selected industrial city. Neo-plasma 1980; 27: 55–61.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Juhasz L, Hill MJ, Nagy G. Possible Relationship between Nitrate in Drinking Water and Incidence of Stomach Cancer. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1980; IARC Sci. Pub. No. 31: 619–23.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hill MJ, HawksworthGM, Tattersall G. Bacteria, nitrosamines and cancer of the stomach. Br J Cancer 1973; 28: 562–7.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fraser P, Chilvers C. Health aspects of nitrate in drinking water. Sci Total Environ 1981; 18: 103–16.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Beresford SAA. Is nitrate in the drinking water associated with the risk of cancer in the urban UK? Int J Epidemiol 1985; 14: 57–63.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jensen OM. Nitrate in drinking water and cancer in northern Jutland, Denmark, with special reference to stomach cancer. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 1982; 6: 258–67.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Vincent P, Dubois G, Leclerc H. Nitrates dans l'eau de boisson et mortalité par cancer. Rev Epidemiol Santé Publique 1983; 31: 199–207.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gilli G, Corrao G, Favilli S. Concentrations of nitrates in drinking water and incidence of gastric carcinomas: First descriptive study of the Piemonte region, Italy. Sci Total Environ 1984; 34: 35–48.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Morales Suarez-Varela M, Llopis-Gonzalez A, Tejerizo-Perez ML, Ferrandiz Ferragud J. Concentration of nitrates in drinking water and its relationship with bladder cancer. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 1993; 12: 229–36.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Morales Suarez-Varela MM, Llopis-Gonzalez A, Tejerizo-Perez L. Impact of nitrates in drinking water on cancer mortality in Valencia, Spain. Eur J Epidemiol 1995; 11: 15–21.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Thouez JP, Beauchamp Y, Simard A. Cancer and the physicochemical quality of drinking water in Quebec. Soc Sci Med 1981; 15D: 213–23.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Weisenburger DD. Potential health consequences of ground-water contamination by nitrates in Nebraska. In: Bogardi I, Kuzelka RD, eds. Nitrate Contamination. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1991: 309–15.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Geleperin MD, Moses VJ, Fox G. Nitrate in water supplies and cancer. Ill Med J 1976; 149: 251–3.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Zaldivar R, Wetterstrand WH. Further evidence of a posi-tive correlation between exposure to nitrate fertilizers and gastric cancer death rates: Nitrates and nitrosamines. Experientia 1975; 31: 1354–5.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Armijo R, Coulson AH. Epidemiology of stomach cancer in Chile-The role of nitrogen fertilizers. Int J Epidemiol 1975; 4: 301–9.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Al-Dabbagh S, Forman D, Bryson D, Stratton I, Doll R. Mortality of nitrate fertiliser workers. Br J Ind Med 1986; 43: 507–15.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Fraser P, Chilvers C, Day M, Goldblatt P. Further results from a census based mortality study of fertiliser manufacturers. Br J Ind Med 1989; 46: 38–42.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hagmar L, Bellander T, Andersson C, Linden K, Attelwell R, Moller T. Cancer morbidity in nitrate fertilizer workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1991; 63: 63–7.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fandrem SI, Kjuus H, Andersen A, Amlie E. Incidence of cancer among workers in a Norwegian nitrate fertiliser plant. Br J Ind Med 1993; 50: 647–52.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Bulbulyan MA, Jourenkova NJ, Boffetta P, Astashevsky SV, Mukeria A, Zaridze DG. Mortality in a cohort of Russian fertilizer workers. Scand J Work Environ Health 1996; 22: 27–33.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cuello C, Correa P, Haenszel W,et al. Gastric cancer in Colombia. I. Cancer risk and suspect environmental agents. JNCI 1976; 57: 1015–20.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rademacher JJ, Young TB, Kanarek MS. Gastric cancer mortality and nitrate levels in Wisconsin drinking water. Arch Environ Health 1992; 47: 292–7.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Xu G, Song P, Reed PI. The relationship between gastric mucosal changes and nitrate intake via drinking water in a high-risk population for gastric cancer in Moping county, China. Eur J Cancer Prev 1992; 1: 437–43.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ward MH, Mark SD, Cantor KP, Weisenburger DD, Correa A, Zahm SH. Drinking water nitrate and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Epidemiology 1996; 7: 465–71.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Steindorf K, Schlehofer B, Becher H, Hornig G, Wahren-dorf J. Nitrate in drinking water. A case-control study on primary brain tumours with an embedded drinking water survey in Germany. Int J Epidemiol 1994; 23: 451–7.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tseng WP, Chu HM, How SW. Prevalence of skin cancer in an endemic area of chronic arsenicism in Taiwan. JNCI 1968; 40: 453–63.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Chen KP, Wu HY. Epidemiologic studies on blackfoot disease. 2. A study of source of drinking water in relation to the disease. J Formosan Med Assn 1962; 61: 611–8.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Chakraborty AK, Saha KC. Arsenical dermatosis from tubewell water in West Bengal. Indian J Med Res 1987; 85: 326–34.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Das D, Chatterjee A, Mandal BK, Samanta G, Chakraborti D. Arsenic in ground water in six districts of West Bengal, India: The biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Part 2. Arsenic concentration in drinking water, hair, nails, urine, skin-scale and liver tissue (biopsy) of the affected people. Analyst 1995; 120: 917–24.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Luo FJ, Luo ZD, Ma L. Astudy on the relationship between drinking water with high arsenic content and incidence of malignant tumour in Heihe Village, western part of Huhe-hot, Inner Mongolia. Chung Hua Liu Hsing Ping Hsueh Tsa Chih 1995; 16: 289–91.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Borgoño JM, Vicent P, Venturino H, Infante A. Arsenic in the drinking water of the City of Antofagasta: Epidem-iological and clinical study before and after the installation of a treatment plant. Environ Health Perspect 1977; 19: 103–5.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zaldivar R. Arsenic contamination of drinking water and foodstuffs causing endemic chronic poisoning. Beitr Path Bd 1974; 151: 384–400.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Cebrián ME, Alborés A, Aguilar M, Blakely E. Chronic arsenic poisoning in the north of Mexico. Hum Toxicol 1983; 2: 121–33.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Olguín A, Jauge P, Cebrián M, Alborés A. Arsenic levels in blood, urine, hair and nails from a chronically exposed human population. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 1983; 24: 175–7.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bergoglio RM. Mortalidad por cáncer en zonas de aguas arsenicales de la Provincia de Córdoba, República Argentina. Pren Med Argent 1964; 51: 994–8.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hopenhayn-Rich C, Biggs ML, Fuchs A,et al. Bladder cancer mortality associated with arsenic in drinking water in Argentina. Epidemiology 1996; 7: 117–24.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Southwick JW, Western AE, Beck MM,et al. An epidem-iological study of arsenic in drinking water in Millard county, Utah. In: Lederer WH, Fensterheim RJ, eds. Arsenic: Industrial, Biomedical, Environmental Perspectives. New York, NY (USA): Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1983: 210–25.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Morton W, Starr G, Pohl D, Stoner J, Wagner S, Weswig P. Skin cancer and water arsenic in Lane County, Oregon. Cancer 1976; 37: 2523–32.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Warner ML, Moore LE, Smith MT, Kalman DA, Fanning E, Smith AH. Increased micronuclei in exfoliated bladder cells of individuals who chronically ingest arsenic-containing water in Nevada. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1994; 3: 583–90.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Valentine JL, He SY, Reisbord LS, Lachenbruch PA. Health response by questionnaire in arsenic-exposed populations. J Clin Epidemiol 1992; 45: 487–94.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Whanger PD, Weswig PH, Stoner JC. Arsenic levels in Oregon waters. Environ Health Perspect 1977; 19: 139–43.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Harrington JM, Middaugh JP, Morse DI, Housworth J. A survey of a population exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in well water in Fairbanks, Alaska. Am J Epidemiol 1978; 108: 377–85.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Smith AH, Hopenhayn-Rich C, Bates MN,et al. Cancer risks from arsenic in drinking water. Environ Health Per-spect 1992; 97: 259–67.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bates MN, Smith AH, Hopenhayn-Rich C. Arsenic ingestion and internal cancers: A review. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 135: 462–76.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Pontius FW. Health implications of arsenic in drinking water. J Am Water Works Assoc 1994; 86: 52–63.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Yeh S. Relative incidence of skin cancer in Chinese in Taiwan: With special reference to arsenical cancer. In: Conference on Biology of Cutaneous Cancer, National Cancer Institute Mongraph No. 10. Bethesda, MD (USA): US Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1963: 81–107.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Tseng WP. Effects and dose-response relationships of skin cancer and blackfoot disease with arsenic. Environ Health Perspect 1977; 19: 109–19.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Yeh S. Skin cancer in chronic arsenicism. Hum Pathol 1973; 4: 469–85.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Brown KG, Boyle KE, Chen CW, Gibb HJ. A dose-response analysis of skin cancer from inorganic arsenic in drinking water. Risk Anal 1989; 9: 519–28.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Pontius FW. Uncertainties drive arsenic rule delay. J Am Water Works Assoc 1995; 87: 12.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Falk H, Caldwell GG, Ishak KG, Thomas LB, Popper H. Arsenic-related hepatic angiosarcoma. Am J Ind Med 1981; 2: 43–50.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Falk H, Herbert J, Crowley S,et al. Epidemiology of hepatic angiosarcoma in the United States: 1964–1974. Environ Health Perspect 1981; 41: 107-13.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Cuzick J, Sasieni P, Evans S. Ingested arsenic, keratoses, and bladder cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136: 417–21.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Wu MM, Kuo TL, Hwang YH, Chen CJ. Dose-response relation between arsenic concentration in well water and mortality from cancers and vascular diseases. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 130: 1123–32.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Chen CJ, Chuang YC, Lin TM, Wu HY. Malignant neo-plasms among residents of a blackfoot disease-endemic area in Taiwan: High-arsenic artesian well water and cancers. Cancer Res 1985; 45: 5895–9.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Chen CJ, Chuang YC, You SL, Lin TM, Wu HY. A retrospective study on malignant neoplasms of bladder, lung and liver in blackfoot disease endemic area. Br J Cancer 1986; 53: 399–405.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Chen CJ, Wang CJ. Ecological correlation between arsenic level in well water and age-adjusted mortality from malig-nant neoplasms. Cancer Res 1990; 50: 5470–4.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Chiou HY, Hsueh YM, Liaw KF,et al. Incidence of internal cancers and ingested inorganic arsenic: A seven-year follow-up study in Taiwan. Cancer Res 1995; 55: 1296–300.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Chen CJ, Chen CW, Wu MM, Kuo TL. Cancer potential in liver, lung, bladder and kidney due to ingested inorganic arsenic in drinking water. Br J Cancer 1992; 66: 888–92.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Tsuda T, Babazono A, Yamamoto E,et al. Ingested arsenic and internal cancer: A historical cohort study followed for 33 years. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 141: 198–209.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Tsuda T, Nagira T, Yamamoto M, Kume Y. An epidemio-logical study on cancer in certified arsenic poisoning patients in Toroku. Ind Health 1990; 28: 53–62.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Moore LE, Smith AH, Hopenhayn-Rich C, Biggs ML, Kalman DA, Smith MT. Micronuclei in exfoliated bladder cells among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1997; 6: 31–6.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Cantor KP. Arsenic in drinking water: How much is too much? [Editorial]. Epidemiology 1996; 7: 113–5.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Mushak P, Crocetti AF. Risk and revisionism in arsenic cancer risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect 1995; 103: 684–9.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Brown KG, Guo HR, Kuo TL, Greene HL. Skin cancer and inorganic arsenic: Uncertainty-status of risk. Risk Anal (in press).Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Brown KG, Guo HR, Greene HL. Uncertainty in cancer risk at low doses of inorganic arsenic. Hum Ecolog Risk Assess (in press).Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Chromium, Nickel and Welding. Lyon, France: IARC, 1990; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Humans, Vol. 49. Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Beryllium, Cadmium, Mercury, and Exposures in the Glass Manufacturing Industry. Lyon, France: IARC, 1993; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Humans, Vol. 58. Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Hayes RB. The carcinogenicity of metals in humans. Cancer Causes Control 1997; 8: 374–88.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Berg JW, Burbank F. Correlations between carcinogenic trace metals in water supplies and cancer mortality. Ann NY Acad Sci 1972; 199: 249–64.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Isacson P, Bean JA, Splinter R, Olson DB, Kohler J. Drinking water and cancer incidence in Iowa: III. Association of cancer with indices of contamination. AmJ Epidemiol 1985; 121: 856–69.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Bako G, Smith ES, Hanson J, Dewar R. The geographical distribution of high cadmium concentrations in the environment and prostate cancer in Alberta. Can J Public Health 1982; 73: 92–4.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Vincenti M, Rovesti S, Gabrielli C,et al. Cancer mortality in a residential cohort exposed to environmental selenium through drinking water. J Clin Epidemiol 1995; 48: 1091–7.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Flaten TP, Bolviken B. Geographical associations between drinking water chemistry and the mortality and morbidity of cancer and some other diseases in Norway. Sci Total Environ 1991; 102: 75–100.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Turner RC. Radioactivity and hardness of drinking waters in relation to cancer mortality rates. Br J Cancer 1962; 16: 27–45.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Stocks P. Mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases in the county boroughs of England and Wales classified according to the sources and hardness of their water supplies, 1958–1967. J Hyg Camb 1973; 71: 237-52.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Tromp SW. Statistical study of the possible relationship between mineral constituents in drinking-water and cancer mortality in the Netherlands (period 1900–1940). Br J Cancer 1954; 8: 585-93.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Burton AC, Cornhill JF, Canham PB. Protection from cancer by 'silica' in the water-supply of U.S. cities. J Environ Pathol Toxicol 1980; 4: 31–40.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    US Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Pesticide Programs. Pesticides in Ground Water Data Base: 1988 Interim Report. Washington, DC: EPA, 1988.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Ritter WF. Pesticide contamination of ground water in the United States-a review. J Environ Sci Health [B] 1990; 25: 1–29.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    US Environmental Protection Agency. National Survey of Pesticides in Drinking Water Wells: Phase I Report. Washington, DC: EPA, 1990.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    DeKraay WH. Pesticides and lymphoma in Iowa. J Iowa Med Soc 1978; 1978: 50–3.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Mallin K. Investigation of a bladder cancer cluster in North-western Illinois. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 132(Suppl 1): S96-S106.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Griffith J, Duncan RC, Riggan WB, Pellom AC. Cancer mortality in U.S. counties with hazardous waste sites and ground water pollution. Arch Environ Health 1989; 44: 69–74.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Najem GR, Louria DB, Lavenhar MA, Feuerman M. Clusters of cancer mortality in New Jersey municipalities; with special reference to chemical toxic waste disposal sites and per capita income. Int J Epidemiol 1985; 14: 528–37.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Fagliano J, Berry M, Bove F, Burke T. Drinking water contamination and the incidence of leukemia: An ecologic study. Am J Public Health 1990; 80: 1209–1212.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Cohn P, Klotz J, Bove F, Berkowitz M, Fagliano J. Drinking water contamination and the incidence of leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102: 556–61.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Budnick LD, Sokal DC, Falk H, Logue JN, Fox JM. Cancer and birth defects near the Drake superfund site, vania. Arch Environ Health 1984; 39: 409–13.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Wong O, Morgan RW, Whorton MD, Gordon N, Kheifets L. Ecological analyses and case-control studies of gastric cancer and leukemia in relation to DBCP in drinking water in Fresno County, California. Br J Ind Med 1989; 46: 521–8.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. In: Some Halogenated Hydrocarbons. Lyon, France: IARC, 1979; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vol. 20: 83–96.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Sloss EM, Geschwind SA, McCaffrey DF, Ritz BR. Ground-water Recharge with Reclaimed Water: An Epidemiologic Assessment in Los Angeles County, 1987–1991. Santa Monica, CA (USA): RAND, 1996.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    National Research Council: Committee on Environmental Epidemiology. Environmental Epidemiology Volume 1: Public Health and Hazardous Wastes. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Janerich DT, Burnett WS, Feck G,et al. Cancer incidence in the Love Canal area. Science 1981; 212: 1404–7.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Heath CW, Nadel MR, Zack MM, Chen ATL, Bender MA, Preston RJ. Cytogenetic findings in persons living near the Love Canal. JAMA 1984; 251: 1437–40.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Baker DB, Greenland S, Mendlein J, Harmon P. A health study of two communities near the Stringfellow waste disposal site. Arch Environ Health 1988; 43: 325–34.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Lampi P, Hakulinen T, Luostarinen T, Pukkala E, Teppo L. Cancer incidence following chlorophenol exposure in a community in southern Finland. Arch Environ Health 1992; 47: 167–75.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Lilienfeld DE, Gallo MA. 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, and 2,3,7,8-TCDD: An overview. In: Armenian HK, Gordis L, Gregg MB, Levine MM, eds. Epidemiologic Reviews Volume 11. Bal-timore, MD (USA): American Journal of Epidemiology, 1989: 28–58.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Delong S. Drinking water and liver cell cancer. Chin Med J 1979; 92: 748–56.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Lagakos SW, Wessen BJ, Zelen M. An analysis of contami-nated well water and health effects in Woburn, Massachusetts. J Am Stat Assoc 1986; 81: 583–96.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    MacMahon B, Prentice RL, Rogan WJ, Swan SH, Robins JM, Whittemore AS. Comments and rejoinder on Lagakos, Wessen, and Zelen article on contaminated well water and health effects in Woburn, Massachusetts. J Am Stat Assoc 1986; 81: 597–614.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Cutler JJ, Parker GS, Rosen S, Prenney B, Healey R, Caldwell GG. Childhood leukemia in Woburn, Massachusetts. Public Health Rep 1986; 101: 201–5.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Byers VS, Levin AS, Ozonoff DM, Baldwin RW. Association between clinical symptoms and lymphocyte abnormalities in a population with chronic domestic expo-sure to industrial solvent-contaminated domestic water supply and a high incidence of leukaemia. Cancer Immunol Immunother 1988; 27: 77–81.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Durant JL, Chen J, Hemond HF, Thilly WG. Elevated incidence of childhood leukemia in Woburn, Massachusetts: NIEHS superfund basic research program searches for causes. Environ Health Perspect 1995; 103(Suppl 6): 93–8.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Costos K, Knorr R. Woburn Childhood Leukemia Follow-up Study: Volume I, Analyses. Draft Final Report. Boston, MA (USA): Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 1996.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Aschengrau A, Ozonoff D, Paulu C,et al. Cancer risk and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contaminated drinking water in Massachusetts. Arch Environ Health 1993; 48: 284–92.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    National Research Council. Drinking Water and Health. Volume 1. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1977.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Millette JR, Clark PJ, Stober J, Rosenthal M. Asbestos in water supplies of the United States. Environ Health Perspect 1983; 53: 45–8.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Langer AM, Maggiore CM, Nicholson WJ, Rohl AN, Rubin IB, Selikoff IJ. The contamination of Lake Superior with amphibole gangue minerals. Ann NY Acad Sci 1979; 330: 549–72.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Seshan K. How are the physical and chemical properties of chrysotile asbestos altered by a 10-year residence in water and up to 5 days in simulated stomach acid? Environ Health Perspect 1983; 53: 143–8.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Asbestos. Lyon, France: IARC, 1977; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Man, Vol. 14.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Kanarek MS, Conforti PM, Jackson LA, Cooper RC, Murchio JC. Asbestos in drinking water and cancer inci-dence in the San Francisco Bay area. Am J Epidemiol 1980; 112: 54–72.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Conforti PM, Kanarek MS, Jackson LA, Cooper RC, Murchio JC. Asbestos in drinking water and cancer in the San Francisco Bay area: 1969–1974 incidence. J Chron Dis 1981; 34: 211-24.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Wigle DT. Cancer mortality in relation to asbestos in municipal water supplies. Arch Environ Health 1977; 32: 185–9.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Polissar L, Severson RK, Boatman ES, Thomas DB. Cancer incidence in relation to asbestos in drinking water in the Puget Sound region. Am J Epidemiol 1982; 116: 314–28.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Polissar L, Severson RK, Boatman ES. Acase-control study of asbestos in drinking water and cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 1984; 119: 456–71.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Andersen A, Glattre E, Johansen BV. Incidence of cancer among lighthouse keepers exposed to asbestos in drinking water. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 138: 682–7.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Mason TJ, McKay FW, Miller RW. Asbestos-like fibers in Duluth water supply. JAMA 1974; 228: 1019–20.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Levy BS, Sigurdson E, Mandel J, Laudon E, Pearson J. Investigating possible effects of asbestos in city water: Surveillance of gastrointestinal cancer incidence in Duluth, Minnesota. Am J Epidemiol 1976; 103: 362–8.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Sigurdson EE, Levy BS, Mandel J,et al. Cancer morbidity investigations: Lessons from the Duluth study of possible effects of asbestos in drinking water. Environ Res 1981; 25: 50–61.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Meigs JW, Walter SD, Heston JF,et al. Asbestos cement pipe and cancer in Connecticut 1955–1974. J Environ Health 1980; 42: 187-91.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Harrington JM, Craun GF, Meigs JW, Landrigan PJ, Flannery JT, Woodhull RS. An investigation of the use of asbestos cement pipe for public water supply and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer in Connecticut, 1935–1973. Am J Epidemiol 1978; 107: 96-103.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Sadler TD, Rom WN, Lyon JL, Mason JO. The use of asbestos-cement pipe for public water supply and the incidence of cancer in selected communities in Utah. J Community Health 1984; 9: 285–93.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Howe HL, Wolfgang PE, Burnett WS, Nasca PC, Young-blood L. Cancer incidence following exposure to drinking water with asbestos leachate. Public Health Rep 1989; 104: 251–6.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Millette JR, Craun GF, Stober JA,et al. Epidemiology study of the use of asbestos-cement pipe for the distribution of drinking water in Escambia County, Florida. Environ Health Perspect 1983; 53: 91–8.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Cothern CR, Lappenbusch WL, Michel J. Drinking-water contribution to natural background radiation. Health Phys 1986; 50: 33–47.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Hess CT, Weiffenbach CV, Norton SA. Environmental radon and cancer correlations in Maine. Health Phys 1983; 45: 339–48.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Nazaroff WW, Doyle SM, Nero AV, Sextro RG. Potable water as a source of airborne 222Rn in U.S. dwellings: A review and assessment. Health Phys 1987; 52: 281–95.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Petersen NJ, Samuels LD, Lucas HF, Abrahams SP. An epidemiologic approach to low-level radium 226 exposure. Public Health Rep 1966; 81: 805–14.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Lyman GH, Lyman CG, Johnson W. Association of leukemia with radium groundwater contamination. JAMA 1985; 254: 621–6.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Wishart DL, Stebbings JH, Lucas HF,et al. Leukemia and radium groundwater contamination [See Letters]. JAMA 1986; 255: 901–4.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    O'Brien TR, Decouflé P, Rhodes PH. Leukemia and groundwater contamination [Letter]. JAMA 1987; 257: 317.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Bean JA, Isacson P, Hahne RMA, Kohler J. Drinking water and cancer incidence in Iowa: II. Radioactivity in drinking water. Am J Epidemiol 1982; 116: 924–32.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Fuortes L, McNutt LA, Lynch C. Leukemia incidence and radioactivity in drinking water in 59 Iowa towns. Am J Public Health 1990; 80: 1261–2.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Collman GW, Loomis DP, Sandler DP. Childhood cancer mortality and radon concentration in drinking water in North Carolina. Br J Cancer 1991; 63: 626–9.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Finkelstein MM. Radium in drinking water and the risk of death from bone cancer among Ontario youths. Can Med Assoc J 1994; 151: 565–71.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Finkelstein MM, Kreiger N. Radium in drinking water and risk of bone cancer in Ontario youths: A second study and combined analysis. Occup Environ Med 1996; 53: 305–11.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Burk D, Yiamouyiannis J. Fluoridation and cancer. Congressional Record 1975; July 21.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Hoover RN, McKay FW, Fraumeni JF. Fluoridated drinking water and the occurrence of cancer. JNCI 1976; 57: 757–68.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Chilvers C. Cancer mortality and fluoridation of water supplies in 35 US cities. Int J Epidemiol 1983; 12: 397–404.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. Inorganic fluorides. In: Some Aromatic Amines, Anthraquinones and Nitroso Compounds, and Inorganic Fluorides. Lyon, France: IARC, 1982; IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Humans, Vol. 27: 235–303.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    US National Research Council. Inorganic solutes. In: Drinking Water and Health. Volume 1. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1977: 369–400.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    US Public Health Service. Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs Subcommittee on Fluoride. Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, 1991.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Knox EG. Fluoridation of Water and Cancer: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence. Report of the Working Party on Fluoridation of Water and Cancer. London, UK: Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 1985.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Bucher JR, Hejtmancik MR, Toft JD II, Persing RL, Eustis SL, Haseman JK. Results and conclusions of the National Toxicology Program's rodent carcinogenicity studies with sodium fluoride. Int J Cancer 1991; 48: 733–7.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Hrudey SE, Soskolne CL, Berkel J, Fincham S. Drinking water fluoridation and osteosarcoma. Can J Public Health 1990; 81: 415–6.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Mahoney MC, Nasca PC, Burnett WS, Melius JM. Bone cancer incidence rates in New York State: Time trends and fluoridated drinking water. Am J Public Health 1991; 81: 475–9.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Freni SC, Gaylor DW. International trends in the incidence of bone cancer are not related to drinking water fluorida-tion. Cancer 1992; 70: 611–8.Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Cohn PD. A Brief Report on the Association of Drinking Water Fluoridation and the Incidence of Osteosarcoma among Young Males. Trenton, NJ (USA): New Jersey Department of Health, 1992.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Moss ME, Kanarek MS, Anderson HA, Hanrahan LP, Remington PL. Osteosarcoma, seasonality, and environmental factors in Wisconsin, 1979–1989. Arch Environ Health 1995; 50: 235-41.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    McGuire S, Douglass C, DaSilva J. A national case-control study of osteosarcoma and fluoridation: Phase I analysis of prevalent cases. J Dent Res 1995; 74: 98.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Gelberg KH, Fitzgerald EF, Hwang S, Dubrow R. Fluoride exposure and childhood osteosarcoma: A case-control study. Am J Public Health 1995; 85: 1678–83.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Bourne D, Aggett M. Lack of relation between levels of fluoride in drinking water and carcinoma in South Africa. S Afr Med J 1994; 84: 115–6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth P. Cantor
    • 1
  1. 1.Occupational Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and GeneticsNational Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations